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Muscle physiology

basic ideas

Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose or glycogen to Organic acid
Does glycolysis use O2? No - anaerobic
When O2 is present what can be catabolized in the Krebs cycle and complete the aerobic pathway to generate more ATP? Pyruvic acid
If the cell does not have enough O2, what accumulates in the cell and eventually inhibits glycolysis and the na+/K+ pumps? Lactic acid
If lactic acid diffuses into the ECF what does it cause? discomfort and psychological fatigue
The amt. of O2 needed to convert the lactic acid back to pyruvate is called the O2 debt
T/F muscle cells can produce ATP through glycolysis without O2 for only a short time True
What happens if the muscle cell is without O2 for a long time? Lactic Acid increases
T/F Muscles have glycogen stores to provide a fast source of glucose when needed. True
Creatine phosphate Hydrolysis produces ATP in 1 step? T/F True
What are the 3 metabolic pathways for regenerating ATP? Creatine Phosphate HyrolysisGlycolysisOxidative Phosphorylation
ADP + Pi = ATP
Does creatine phosphate hydrolysis require O2? No
Creatine Phosphate is hydrolyzed to release a phosphate which is added to ADP to make ATP. T/F True
Oxidative Phosphorylation produces ATP via the ____ ____ ____ in the ________ Electronic Transport chainmitochondria
Does Oxidative Phosphorylation require O2? Yes
Can the Krebs cycle and ETC work without oxidative phosphorylation? No
Oxidative phosphorylation can produce MUCH MORE ATP than the glycolysis and creatine phosphate hydrolysis and produce ATP for a MUCH LONGER TIME. T/F True
What is the the resistance to fatigue, or the ability of muscle cells to contract for long periods of time? Endurance
Endurance uses _______ to produce large amounts of ATP for long periods of time. Oxidative phosphorylation.
Cells with good endurance must have good O2 supplies? T/F True
Muscle cells with the best endurance are called slow or fast twitch slow twitch or slow oxidative fibers
slow twitch / slow oxidative fibers are what color and are they thin or thick? Red, and thin.
What has a higher affinity for O2 than hemoglobin and "grabs" the O2 from the Hemoglobin, releases the O2 to the muscle cell when needed, and is red in color? Myoglobin
Muscle cells with good endurance usually have these characteristics. (3) Myoglobin, Extra capillaries, High # of mitochondria.
These deliver the neccessary O2 and glucose/nutients to allow the cell to keep making ATP Capillaries
Mitochondria helps with enduracne adn fatigue? T/F True
What is the ability of muscle cells to contract with great force? Power
Cells with more power tend to have more creatine phospate, more bulk of myosin and actin filaments, and a stronger cross bridge activity. T/F true
Powerful muscles are also called what? fast twitch / fast glycolytic
Powerful/fast twitch muscles have less endurance. T/F True
Do fast twitch muscles have large or small glycogen stores? Large
Do power / fast twitch muscles have less or more blood supply? Less
Do power muscles have less or more myoglobin? and What color are they? Less and white
Do power muscles contract slower or faster faster
Fast twitch muscles have thick or thin fibers? Thick
What are activities which develop maximum endurance or maximum power or a desired balance of power and endurance in muscles? Conditioning or Training
Which steroid enhance the development of power and bulk in muscle cells. Testosterone
Intermediate fibers have "in between" characteristics? T/F True
Cardiac muscle can also be conditioned? T/F True
What is another name for a Slow twitch muscle fiber? Slow Oxidative
what is another name for an intermediate twitch muscle fiber? Fast oxidative
What is another name for a fast twitch muscle fiber? Fast Glycolytic
The name of the slow, intermediate, and fast muscle fiber is the same as the contraction speed? T/F True
The pathway to make ATP is the same for both Slow and Intermediate twitch muscle fibers? T/F True - both are aerobic
The pathway to make ATP in the fast twitch muscle fiber is anaerobic. T/F True - Anaerobic
Mitochondria in slow and intermediate twitch muscle fibers are high in number. T/F True - high mitochondria in slow and interm. twitch
Mitochondria in fast twitch muscle fibers are low in number. T/F True - low mitochondria in fast twitch
Myoglobin content is high in slow and intermediate twitch muscle fibers? T/F True - high Myoglobin in slow and interm.
Myoglobin content is low in fast twitch muscle fibers? T/F True
glycogen stores are low for slow twitch, intermediate for intermediate twitch and high for fast twitch muscle fibers. T/F True - (it almost matches thier name)
Rate of fatigue matches the muscle twitch names. T/F True
Color of the slow, intermediate, and fast twitch muscle fibers are? slow- redintermediate - pink-redfast - whitebecause of the myoglobin
Fiber diameter matches each muscle twitch name? T/F True slow-small intermediate-intermediate fast-large
capillary supply in the slow and intermediate twitch muscle fiber is many. T/F True
Capillary supply in the fast twitch muscle fiber is few. T/F True
Created by: blackd254
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