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A & P MOD 2.1

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Intracellular Fluid Fluid contained within the cells
Interstitial Fluid Fluid between the cells and in special cavities, such as in the cranium
Plasma The fluid portion of the blood (Plasma composes nearly 60% of the volume of blood)
Electrolyte A substance that forms ions when it dissolves (include salts, acids, and bases found throughout the body)
Ion An atom or group of atoms with either a positive or negative electrical charge
Salt A class of chemicals that have a positive ion other than hydrogen and a negative ion that is not a hydroxyl
Hydroxyl An anion consisting of one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom
Acid A substance that releases a hydrogen ion when dissolved
Base A substance that releases a hydroxide ion when dissolved (also referred to as alkaline)
Dissolved electrolytes have an excess or shortage of electrons, giving them a negative or a positive charge respectively.
Body functions are most efficient when the concentrations of the electrolytes are within specific ranges.
Electrolytes are lost through sweating and through the elimination of urine and feces.
Acids and bases are classed as strong, using a value called pH, with the most acidic substances having a value toward 0 and the most basic substances having a value toward 14.
Body fluids have a normal pH value with a narrow range above and below that value.
If the pH value of a fluid goes above or below its ideal range, chemical reactions will be affected.
Normal human activities can lead to major shifts in pH.
To compensate for these potential changes in pH, the body contains buffer systems.
Buffer systems contain a weak acid and a weak base that react with strong acids and strong bases to produce substances that do not change the normal pH excessively.
Metabolism The processes that lead to chemical reactions in the body Catabolism
The primary source of energy in the body is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). During cell metabolism in which glucose and oxygen are converted into carbon dioxide and water, some energy released creates a bond between ADP and a phosphate group to produce ATP.
Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP until it is needed for cell functions.
All cells contain enzymes that allow them to break the phosphate bonds in ATP. Energy released from ATP fuels cell functions, including cell division to produce new cells.
Some of the energy is applied to moving substances in and out of the cell and in carrying out chemical reactions, as well as providing the cell with a stable temperature.
Normal body temperature ranges from 96.5 degrees F to 99.5 degrees F (36 degrees C to 30 degrees C).
Normal temperature is considered to be 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C). Temperature is normally lower during sleep.
Body Temperature is regulated by the hypothalamus.
Blood vessels near the surface of the skin constrict to reduce heat loss.
Blood vessels near the surface of the skin dilate to increase heat loss.
Heat is removed from the body by sweating.
Fever is an abnormally high body temperature.
Hypothermia is an abnormally low body temperature.
Reproduction The process by which organisms create more of their own kind Sexual
Asexual Relating to reproduction that does not involve the union of individual organisms or separate cells
Growth The orderly increase in size that an organism exhibits as it matures Metabolism
Movement The ability to change the location of matter from one place to another
Responsiveness The characteristics of an organism to react to changes in its environment
Adaptation the process of modifying life processes to improve an organism's chances of survival
Theory of evolution A theory that all life began as simple organic compounds that over time developed the characteristics of life and continued to become more complex in functioning and in coping with the environment
Created by: llc1980



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