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Treatment

Rehabilitation and reconditioning

QuestionAnswer
What does 'extension lag' mean? Inability to fully extend the knee
What is the best method of determining the recovery status of the hand and forearm after a flexor injury? Hand dynamometer
What is the correct sequence of tissue healing? Cellular response, regeneration, remodeling
What amount of time may it take for complete remodeling of tissues to occur after a soft tissue injury? Up to a year
Where is the primary location for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in skeletal muscle? Sarcomere
Sensory receptors located at the musculotendinous junction, which monitor active tension generated by muscle during contraction, are called? Golgi tendon organs
What describes a neurapraxia? Demyelination of the axon sheath that leads to a conduction block. Heals in approx 1-2 weeks
Bone grows via a process of apposition and resorption on its surface. Which of the following cells are responsible for the resorption of bone during its growth or repair? Osteoclasts - reabsorb bone during growth
Why is the repair response so limited in the articular cartilage of a joint after an injury in the adult ath? Articular cartilage cells do not undergo mitosis in the mature ath
Four sensations the ath experiences with cryotherapy? Cold, burning, achy, numbness
The effects of treating a subacute musculoskeletal injury with a warm whirlpool include? Analgesia, stimulation of local circulation, decreased muscle spasm, decreased joint stiffness
What cells become active after an injury to begin building collagen? Fibroblasts
External muscular force available for useful work is the result of _? Depends on the velocity of muscle shortening, angle of the pull of muscle, and the length of the muscle
Balance and coordination are critical for athletic performance. Feedback from the muscles as to what they are doing during a particular activity is know as _. The area of the brain that assists in controlling movement is _. Propioception, cerebellum
What stretching exercise consists of 'stretch and hold'? Static stretch
If hyperventilation does not adequately increase the oxygen supply in the blood during aerobic exercise, what must occur to meet the gas exchange demands? Increased cardiac output
Therapeutic mental process where an ath pictures them being evaluated, going through the rehabilitation process, and returning to sport. What type of therapeutic approach is this? Visualization
What would be the best response to an attention-seeking ath? Set specific but reasonable time limits with the ath per treatment session so the AT does not become overtaxed
If an ath needs to lose weight for health reasons, how many calories must his or her daily diet be reduced by in order to lost 1 - 2 lbs a week? 500 - 1000 cal/day
What modality is best utilized if the desired effect is decrease pain, edema, and inflammation? Ice packs - cryotherapy
What are heat-producing currents in the body that are formed by a magnetic field that is externally applied in short-wave diathermy? Eddy currents
Contraindications for using cryotherapy. Raynaud's, vasculitis, cold urticaria
What would be a functional skill for an ath in an ankle rehabilitation program? Single leg hopping to assess readiness to play
When rehabilitating a musculoskeletal injury, what is the proper progression of treatment? ROM, strength, endurance, proprioception
PNF stretching? Increase ROM and flexibility. PNF increases ROM by increasing the length of the muscle and increasing neuromuscular efficiency.
3 types of PNF stretching Hold-relax, contract-relax, and hold-relax with agonist contraction.
During a lower extremity D1 flexion PNF pattern, what movements are taking place at the hip? Flexion, adduction, external rotation
During a D2 extension pattern of the upper extremity, what is the proper timing sequence? Shoulder extension, forearm pronation, finger flexion
Maitland's five grades of joint motion 1- small amplitude movement at the beginning of ROM 2 – large amplitude movement at within the ROM 3 – large amplitude movement that moves into stiffness or spasm 4 – small amplitude movement stretching into stiffness or spasm 5 - A high velocity
According Maitland's 5 grade of joint motion, which grade is most appropriate when joint movement is limited by pain and spasm? Grade 1
An ath is seen by the AT 4 wks post op shoulder arthroscopy. The AT found the ath has limited abduction secondary to capsular stiffness. What glides would be appropriate to improve this motion? Inferior humeral glide
What is isokinetic training? Generation of a muscular force with visible joint movement that occurs at a constant speed but with variable external resistance
Massage techniques of tapotement Cupping, hacking, pinching
When massage is utilized to induce a sedative effect, which type of massage technique is indicated? Effleurage - deep stroking produces relaxation
What is proprioception? The awareness of posture, positioning, and movement as the limb is moved through space
Running downhill requires what type of muscle contracture by the quads? Eccentric stretching
During the acute phase of an ankle injury, the water temperature of a whirlpool should be at what temperature? 55-65 degree F
What component of a rehabilitation program is most overlooked by an AT during rehabilitation? Proprioception
Immediately after knee surgery, what type of exercises may be safely initiated? Isometric exercises
What is isometric training? No joint movement during muscular contraction
What is isotonic training? During joint movement, muscle shortens or lengthens as contraction occurs Concentric / eccentric
When rehabing an ath with 'jumpers knee' what muscle group should eventually be strengthened? Quadriceps
When rehabing an ath with trochanteric bursitis, flexibility should be increase in which muscle? Tensor fascia latae
A running ath with a tight Achilles' tendon would cause _ or _ in order to allow the lower leg to move over the foot in running Early heel-off, excessive pronation
When rehabilitating a cervical strain, what must the AT maintain integrity of ? Shoulder girdle - ROM and strength
What is the proper sequence of rehabilitation in a grade 2 ankle sprain? RICE, stretching Achilles' tendon, isometric exercises, proprioceptive exercises, isotonic exercises
When is the best time to start a rehabilitation protocol? Immediately
What is DAPRE technique? Daily adjustable progressive resistive exercise
When following the DAPRE technique of progressive resistive exercise, the first set of 10 repetitions is performed with a weight that is _ of the weight will be lifted in set three 50%
When rehabing an ath with patellofemoral pain syndrome, which muscle groups should be strengthened? Quadriceps, and hip adductors
Which of the following exercises are appropriate in attempting to decrease the symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome? Stretching the anterior chest wall, strengthening the posterior midthoracic area
What are the most appropriate exercises for a diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis? Williams' flexion exercise
When rehabbing a shoulder, in what area should strengthening exercises be initiated first? Scapular musculature
When rehabbing an ACL, what muscle groups should be strengthened to support the graft? Hamstrings
What is a closed chain exercise? The hand/foot is fixed and in constant contact with surface (ground, base of machine) Squats, pushups
What is a open chain exercise? Where the hand or foot is free to move. Leg curls, bicep curls
When rehabbing lateral epicondylitis, which muscle group needs to be strengthened? Wrist extensors, once inflammation is under control
When rehabbing an ath with a recent herniated lumbar disc, which of the following exercises are most appropriate? McKenzie extension exercises
How do you properly do a sit-up? Cross arms across chest, tuck chin, bend knees, inhale, then exhale and pull the torso up toward knees
Types of knee braces Functional, prophylactice, rehabilitative
Which type of knee brace should be worn for 1-2 wks after grad 2 MCL tear? Rehabiliative
Mechanical traction is indicated for..? Degenerative joint disease, herniated discs, muscle spasm
Muscle groups involved in bench press Anterior deltoid, triceps, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
Muscle groups involved in full weighted squat Quadriceps, hamstrings erector spinae, gluteus maximus
Muscle groups involved in seated military press Trapezius, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and triceps
What describes a grade 3 joint mobilization technique? Large amplitude movement throughout the full available ROM
When rehabbing an ath it is important that the area is stressed with a variety of intensities and duration's during conditioning. The body responds to these stresses by adapting to the specific demands, what is this principal known as? The SAID principal - specific, adaptation to imposed demands
What is an example of an isotonic device? Fixed resistance at a variable speed, free weights, total gym, squat rack, wall pulleys
What is plyometric training? Loading a muscle eccentrically prior to performing a powerful concentric contraction. Places muscle in fully stretched position just prior to a contraction-enhancing explosieness
What exercise improves proprioceptive feedback when rehabbing a lower extremity injury? Single leg standing on mini-trampoline or uneven surface
What exercise should be avoided in the early stages (phase 1) of ACL reconstruction rehab? Full knee extension exercises- creates to much shear force on tibia
Two exercises that are designed to stabilized the lumbar spine during low back rehab include _and _ Partial sit ups, active trunk extension in prone - strengthen the erector spinae muscles
Ultrasound is based on the _ effect Reverse piezoelectric effect
What medium does not transmit ultrasound waves? Air - must be transmitted through a coupling medium
What is the term used in ultrasound to describe the time that sound waves are being emitted during one pulse period? The duty cycle - time in which sound wave are being emitted during one pulse period
'Conventional TENS' uses a frequency in the _ pulses per sec range with a phase duration of _ u seconds. 50-100, 2 - 50
Paraffin bath is a great way of superficially heating the hands and feet. What tempt should the wax be kept at? 126-130 degrees F
Ultrasound waves are reflected by _ and absorbed by _ Bone, muscle
Contraindications of massage Inflammation, hemorrhage, infection, and phlebitis
What is diathermy used for? Increase local circulation, reduce spasms, and decrease pain after a musculotendinous injury
What type of ultrasound would be used on scar tissue? Pulsed ultrasound
Which physical law is applied with the used of an infrared lamp? Inverse square law - intensity of radiation from light varies inversely to the square of the distance from the source
_ and _ deliver medication via sound waves and electricity Phonophoresis ana iontophoreses
What is a primary indication for cervical traction? Reduce muscle pain and spasm
The at of a collegiate women's swimming and dive team suspects an ath to have a severe eating disorder. To which professional should the ath be referred? Psychologist
Male ath notices tingling sensation in his urethra followed by a discharge of greenish yellow pus, pain with urination. What sex transmitted disease do you think and what should he be referred to? Gonorrhea - refer ath to physician
What should you do if an ath has never had electrical stimulation before? Teach them about the general principles of electric stim
Proper breathing method for ath's in lifting? Inhale deeply at the beginning of the lift, forcefully exhale at the end of the lift
What should the AT do when teaching an ath how to properly use crutches? Caution the ath not to lean on the crutches so that his or her weight is on the crutches' axillary pads
'Training staleness' what should you do when you see an ath experiencing this Assess the ath's training schedule and diet to make sure they are not overtraining and eating healthy.
When rehabbing an ath with a wrist injury, the ligament has healed enough to go through active motion. It is important the ath exercise only.. Through a pain free range
What is Larsen-Johansson disease? And what exercise is not appropriate An apophysistis at the inferior pole of the patella and has pain and swelling and point tenderness. Isotonic exercise is not appropriate - as it causes to much stress
What is the proper way of making an ath aware of medications when self medicating When to take the medication, and what foods/drugs not to mix with
What is an appropriate response when discussing a catastrophic injury with an ath.? Tell them it is OK to feel a variety motions and to openly express needs and concerns
Heavy lifting workouts should be limited to what seasons of an ath's year long strength-training? Offseason and preseason
What is Scheuermanns's disease? Degeneration of the vertebral epiphyseal endplates, can cause the vertebral disc to herniate. An increased kyphotic curve is seen with this condition
What type of exercises are beneficial to and ath with Scheuermann's disease? Extension and postural exercises
An ath has a lumbar strain, what features should the ath improve in flexibility? Hip flexor, lumbar paraspinals, hamstrings
_ and _ are important qualities that an AT must possess when counseling an ath during a time of distress Honesty and respect
Pain occurring at a site distant to damaged tissue that does not follow the course of a peripheral nerve describes what pain? Referred pain
Contraindications to diathermy Acute inflammation, joint effusion, pregnancy, and open wounds
What occurs during a joint mobilization technique when a convex surface moves on a concave surface? Roll and glide occur in opposite directions
Contraindications to cervical traction A positive vertebral artery test, a positive ALAR ligament test, increased radicular symptoms with treatment, nystagmus
Manual technique in which an injured ath's muscles are actively contracted against a counterforce in a specific position? Muscle energy techniques
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) normally occurs how long after strenuous exercise? 24-72 hours after
Physiologic adaptations of the respiratory system during aerobic endurance training include Enhanced oxygen exchange within lungs, decreased sub maximal pulmonary ventilation, improved circulation through lungs
Muscles involved in seated row Latissimus dorsi, teres major, middle trapezius, pectoralis major
Primary muscles involved in resisted wrist curl ( palms up ) Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris
What is responsible for relaying info regarding muscle dynamics to the conscious and subconscious parts of the CNS? Proprioceptors
What is the most effective motivator for compliance to rehab an injury Goal setting
What type of exercise can produce a spike in systolic BP and result in a potentially life threatening cardiac accident? Isometric
Example of muscle spindle activity? Knee jerk reflex
_ is when the length of a muscle prevents full ROM at the joint or joints over which the muscle crosses. Passive insufficiency
What positions should be avoided when rehabbing an ath who has posterior instability of the glenohumeral joint? Internal rotation with horizontal adduction and flexion
Upper extremity closed kinetic chain exercises are used primarily for strengthening and improving proprioception of _ Muscles that stabilize the shoulder girdle.
Hans Selye's phenomenon of the general adaptions syndrome (GAS) includes which three stages of stress response? The alarm stage, resistance stage, exhaustion
Tempt range of ice bath 50-60 degrees F
Most common electrode placement technique when treating an individual with 'brief intense' TENS Stimulation point placement
An ath has a sore spot on the back of the head. dark red, hard, later develops a lesion discharging yellowish-red pus. What type of infection? Bacterial
Herpes simplex labias is cause by what _ Virus
Pediculosis is Lice
Pediculosis is most efectively treated with A parasiticide
A puncture wound not properly treated could develop _ A tetanus infection
How quickly may skeletal muscle reverse if strength training is discontinued 48 hours
Circuit training if an effective training technique to improve _ and _ Strength and flexibility
Following medications that could predispose an ath to heat illness? Decongestants, Antihistamines, diuretics, beta-adrenergic blockers
During cardio training, how long will it take for an ath's heart rate to plateau? 2-3 mins
What is the efferent response to sensory info called? Neuromusclular control
What type of fracture fails to heal spontaneously within a normal time frame? Nonunion
Effects of thermal ultrasound increase blood flow, secretion of chemotactics, reduction of muscle spasm, increased edema, muscular heating
_ results in movement of ions into the body through the use of an electrical current Iontophoresis
_ is a method of massage that involves the lifting and kneading of the skin, subcutaneous, tissue, and muscle with the fingers or hand. Petrissage
Cardinal sign of inflammation Loss of function
Indications for use of a warm whirlpool Cleaning large open wounds, relieving pain, increasing ROM, reflexation,
Most common form of hyperthyroidism identified by tremors, weakness, difficulty in swallowing/speaking, and facial/eye tic is Graves disease
Labored or difficulty breathing Dyspnea
Created by: opaltafe
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