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Cardiovascular Review

capillaries Join arterial system with venous system. Most significant. Provides cells with vital products. Remove waste products from cells.  
Heart A hollow muscular organ lying in the mediastinum that propels blood to the entire body.  
SA node Located in upper portion of right atrium. Has built in rhythm. Initiates and transmits each heart beat. Sets basic pace for cardiac rate.  
How do veins return blood to the heart? Skeletal muscle contractions Gravity Respiratory activity Valves  
How is blood supplied to the heart muscle?   Coronary arteries.  
The factors that influence blood pressure. Resistance of blood flow Pumping action of heart Viscosity of blood Elasticity of arteries Quantity of blood  
Name four structures responsible for electrical conduction of the heart.? SA node, AV node ,Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibers  
angioplasty   Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels.
Cardioversion Applying controlled electrical shoeck to the exterior of the chest.  
DVT deep vein thrombosis   Blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body
thrombosis   Blood clot that obstructs a vessel.  
bicuspid valve   Blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle; aka mitral valve.  
pulmonary artery   Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.  
pulmonary vein   Carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs.  
beta blockers   Causes a decrease of heart rate and contractility.
inferior vena cava   Collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower portion to the right atrium.  
Superior vena cava Collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the top portion to the right atrium.  
varicose veins   Condition which develops when the valves of the veins are damaged.  
hypertension   Consistently elevated blood pressure.  
hypotension   Destruction of a blood clot.  
catheter ablation   Destruction of conductive tissue of the heart.  
necrosis   Destruction of tissue.
stent   Device used to hold open vessels.
nitrates   Dilate blood vessels to the heart.  
Holter monitor   ECG recording system capable of storing 24 - 48 hours of tracings.  
pericardium   Fibrous sac which encloses the heart.
atherosclerosis   Form of arteriosclerosis characterized by deposits of plaque in arteries.
arteriosclerosis   Hardening and narrowing of an artery.  
arrhythmia   Inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm.  
insufficiency   Inability of the valves to close properly.
valvotomy   Incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening.
diuretics   Increase excretion of water and sodium.  
phlebitis   Inflammation of a vein.  
endocardium   Innermost layer of the heart.  
angina   Intermittent chest pain.  
MI myocardium infarction   Life-threatening condition characterized by necrosis in the myocardium.  
ischemic   Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply.  
aneurysm   Localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel.  
tricuspid valve   Located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)   Lowers blood pressure.  
statins   Lowers cholesterol.  
embolism   Mass lodged in a blood vessel.  
myocardium   Muscular layer of the heart.  
coarction   Narrowing of a vessel.
infarction   Necrosis of tissue following cessation of blood supply.  
epicardium Outermost layer of the heart.  
cardiac catheterization   Passage of a catheter into the heart.  
pulmonic valve   Prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle.   laser ablation  
laser ablation   Procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins.  
palpitation   Sensation that the heart is not beating normally.  
lipid panel   Series of tests used to assess risk of ischemic heart disease.  
bruit Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation.
systole   The contraction phase of the heart.
diastole The relaxation phase of the heart.
Doppler U/S   Ultrasound used to visualize internal cardiac structures.  
CHD   coronary heart disease  
the three layers of the heart Endocardium ,Myocardium , Epicardium  
What are the three layers of artery walls? Tunica externa, Tunica media ,Tunica intima
What are the three major types of blood vessels? arteries, veins, capillaries
What are valves? small structures within the veins that prevent the back flow of blood
What is endocaditis? inflammation of inner lining of the heart and valves
What type of blood do arteries carry? oxygenated blood
What type of blood do veins carry? deoxygenated blood
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm 
AF, AFib atrial fibrillation 
BBB bundle branch block 
CABG coronary artery bypass graft 
CC cardiac catheterization 
CCU coronary care unit 
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CV
CV cardiovascular 
DOE dyspnea on exertion 
DVT deep vein thrombosis 
ECG, EKG electrocardiography,  Electrocardiogram 
EF ejection fraction 
HF heart failure 
HTN hypertension 
IV intravenous 
LA left atrium 
LV left ventricle 
MRA magnetic resonance angiogram 
MRI magnetic resonance imaging 
MVP mitral vital prolapse 
PAC premature atrial contraction 
SA sinoatrial 
SOB shortness of breath 
VT ventricular tachycardia
ECHO echocardiogram 
Created by: Zmcdonald
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