Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Opthalmic E for PAs

Emergency medicine

Accommodation adapting/adjusting the eye to variations in distance consisting of pupillary constriction, convergence of the eyes and increased convexity of the lens
Refraction the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another. The deflection of light from a straight pathway thru the eye.
Amblyopia otherwise known as lazy eye, is a disorder of the visual system that is characterized by poor or indistinct vision in an eye
Diploplia double vision caused by extraocular muscles or a disorder of the nerves
Miosis constriction of the pupil of the eye
Mydriasis an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease, trauma or the use of drugs
Photophobia fear of light or sensitivity (found in headaces)
Presbyopia farsighted: able to see distant objects clearly, comes on with old age
Scotoma an isolated area of diminished vision, a shimmering film appearing as an island within the visual field
Xerophthalmia abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes; may be due to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A, associated with night blindness
Hyperopia abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects, usually present at birth
Hemianopsia blindness in one half of the visual field of one or both eyes
Esotropia crosseye, strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward toward the nose
amaurosis fugax Sudden and usually temporary vision loss caused by an "eye stroke." When a clot or blockage disrupts blood flow to the eye, symptoms can include curtain
What does a positive afferent pupillary defect represent? optic nerve disorder
What is anisocoria? unequal pupils
When should you test confrontation visual fields? all optic complaints
What could restricted EOMs mean? myositis, thyroid orbitopathy, mechanical entrapment of the muscles
What could interrupted or decreased innervations mean? diabetes, HTN, tumors, aneurysm, infection, myasthenia gravis
What structures are found in the anterior segment? conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, lens, ciliary body
What can slit lamp examination reveal? conjuctiva for hemorrhage, discharge inflammation, and FB; cornea for thickness; iris; lens; not the ciliary body
What is a modified seidel test? uses a flourescein strip to paint the suspicious site, and then uses a cobalt blue filter on the slit lamp to examine the anesthetized eye, checking for leakage
When should you perform a dilated fundoscopic evaluation? if intraocular FB, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinal detachement is suspected.
What is the normal IOP? 10 to 21 mmHg
How can you measure IOP? applanation tenometry (preferred), tonopen, schiotz tenometer
What is the usual offending pathogen in preseptal cellulitis? Staph aureus
what is the most frequent source of postseptal cellulitis? orbital extension of perinasal sinus infection
How can one differentiate pre and postseptal cellulitis clinically? EOM impairment, proptosis, orbital and sinus CT scan
What are the most frequent sites of blowout fxs? inferior wall of the maxillary sinus and medial wall of the ethmoid sinus
What conditions require immediate consultation with an ophthamologist? CRAO, CRVO, suspected detached retina, giant cell arteritis
A cherry red spot is associated with what condition? CRAO
A blood and thunder fundus is associated with what condition? CRVO
What might flashing lights and floaters indicate? Retinal detachment
What might cause painless ischemic optic neuropathy? GCA
This dz presents as a painless ischemic optic neuropathy, is a systemic vasculitis, affects women more than men, has a past medical history of polymyalgia rheumatica, and may be accompanied GCA
can cause rapid contralateral involvement if not diagnosed and treated promptly GCA
acute staphylococcal infection of an oil gland associated with an eyelash. It is located at the lash line and has the appearance of a small pustule. External Hordeolum/aka Stye
acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid secondary to blockage of one of the meibomian oil glands in the tarsal plate. Chalazion/ aka Internal Hordolum
Warm compresses and erythromycin ophthalmic ointment twice daily for 7 to 10 days. external hordeolum/ stye
Warm compresses and erythromycin ophthalmic ointment qid 7 to 10 days, switch todoxycycline if chronic and recurrent. chalazion/ internal hordeolum
Bacterial Conjunctivitis mucopurulent discharge and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Often the eyelids are stuck together on awakening. Frequently there is a history of recent exposure to someone with "pink eye."
ddx includes corneal abrasion, ulcer, or dendrite bacterial conjunctivitis
the tx for this disease is different for contact vs non-contact lens wearers bacterial conjuctivitis
tends to follow an antecedent upper respiratory infection and often will have a palpable preauricular node, which aids in confirming the diagnosis. The discharge tends to be watery Viral Conjunctivitis
DDx includes herpes dendrite and can be differentiated with a flouescein stain viral conjuctivitis
ocular discharge, redness, and itching. Itching is a very common and consistent symptom seen with this condition Allergic Conjunctivitis
neonatal conjuctivitis usually comes from this source antimicrobial prophylaxis for gonococcal infection
how large can an eyelid laceration be and not be repaired? <1 mm
What should be avoided when suturing an open wound of the eyebrow? do not shave the hair
What should be done for corneal abrasions? check for FB, optical sectioning for full thickness tearing and anterior chamber assessment, cycloplegia for pain control, treat, no patch for contact lens wearers
What should be done for corneal FB? topical anesthetic, visual acuity, assess for full thickness injury, remove FB and rust if possible, do not burr in visual axis, evert the lid to check for more FB, tx corneal abrasion, refer to optho for next day appt
What chemical burn is usually worse, acid or alkali? Alkali is worse because acid burs coagulate proteins and its penetration is limited
How do you tx chemical burns? copious irrigation until pH is normal, check for epithelial defect. If no defect and normal anterior segment, then erythromycin ointment, cycloplegia, and eye patch.
Foggy vision, halo, hazy cornea, mid-dilated pupil are indication of what? acute narrow angle glaucoma
How do you tx narrow angle glaucoma? suppress aqueous humor production with bblockers, aadrenergic agonists, IV carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, surgical is peripheral laser iridectomy
white blood cells in the anterior chamber Can be viewed using a shortened slit beam (1 mm), room lights turned off, use high magnification setting, 45-60 degree angle created between incident light source and objective, and focus on the aqueous humor Hypopyon
the presence of RBCs in the anterior chamber hyphema
How does one treat hyphema? elevate head, dilate pupil, control intraocular pressure, consult ophthalmology asap
What should one do if he suspects a ruptured globe? Cover with metal eye shield and call ophthalmology asap.
What should be checked for blunt trauma of the eye? slit lamp exam for integrity, check eye motility and visual acuity, dilate for fundoscopy
What is papilledema? bilateral edema of the head of the optic nerve due to increased intracranial pressure (ICP)
What might papilledema indicate? malignant hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, intracranial tumors, and hydrocephalus
What is the common hx for retinal detachment? painless decrease in vision, maybe light flashes or sparks, may be described as curtain in front of eye or as cloudy or smoky.
How does the physical exam of a detached retina appear? gray with white folds and globular bullae
Created by: cwyatt13
Popular Clinical Skills sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards