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biochemistry and microbiology

Biochemistry The study of chemistry as it relates to life
Microbiology the study of extremely small life
Matter That portion of the universe that has a shape and substance
Energy The capacity to do work
Liquid A state of matter in which the substance will take on the shape of a container but will not expand to fill a container with greater volume than the substance
Gas A state of matter in which the substance will take on the shape of any container in which it is placed and will expand to fill the container
Solid A state of matter in which the substance has a definite shape that is maintained unless acted upon by a force that is capable of changing that shape
Chemical Reaction A process in which one or more chemicals that are exposed to the other chemicals or sources of energy such as heat change their chemical composition to produce other chemicals and often other forms of energy
Respiration The physical and chemical process by which an organism supplies its cells and tissues with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Nutrient A substance that can be processed by the digestive system and used by the cells to produce energy or build tissue
Homeostasis The state of the body in which conditions remain relatively stable despite changes in the environment
Element One of more than 100 primary, simple substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance
Atom The smallest division of an element that exhibits all the properties and characteristics of the element
Nucleus The structure in the center of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons and about which electrons orbit
Proton A positively charged particle that is a fundamental component of the nucleus
Neutron An elementary particle that is a fundamental component of the nucleus of atoms; it has no electric charge
Electron A negatively charged elementary particle of an atom
Shell The set of electron orbits in an atom that have the same energy level
Bond The mechanism by which atoms link to one another to form molecules involving the loss of, gaining of, or sharing of electrons in the outer shell
Molecule A structure consisting of two or more atoms
Catalyst A substance that affects the rate of change in a chemical reaction without being changed chemically
Compound A substance that consists of atoms of two or more different elements bonded together as molecules; to separate its components into other compounds and elements requires a chemical reaction
Mixture A substance that consists of two or more combined components that do not interact chemically; to separate its components requires either a mechanical method or the application of energy
Solution A substance that consists of one or more components dissolved in a liquid; to separate its components, the energy of the substance must change so that the energy balance between the components prevents the liquid from being able to hold the dissolved mat
Concentration The ratio of components of a solution or mixture
Saturation Point The concentration level of a solution above which no more of a substance will dissolve
Oxygen Required for the chemical reaction that releases energy from nutrients; one of the atoms in a water molecule; a key element in other compounds of importance to the body
Organic Compound A compound that contains carbon and hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide Given off as a waste product of a cell respiration
Exhalation The act of breathing out or exhaling
Water Dissolves substances to make them more usable to the body; provides fluid to lubricate moving parts of the body; helps maintain body temperature
Lubricate to improve the ease of movement between two objects by applying a substance that reduces friction
Glucose Serves as the primary energy source for the cells
Theory A statement that provides an explanation based on evidence without final proof being obtained
Fever An abnormally high body temperature
Carbohydrates Serve as the major source of energy
Consist primarily sugars or saccharide
Include monosaccharides which are simple sugars that provide nutrient energy and form other compounds
Ribose and deoxyribose part of the nucleic acids that form the genetic code in cells
Oligosaccharides serve as antigens on the outer surface of cell membranes
Cellulose indigestible substance that provide bulk to the contents of the digestive tract and promotes healthy movement through the intestines
Glycogen consists of a very complex chain of glucose molecules that can be stored in the liver and skeletal muscles until converted back into glucose
Starches consist of chains of glucose that are split apart during digestion
Lipids Serve as a means of storing energy, providing structure to cell membranes, and influencing some hormone functions
Consist of carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes phosphorus, often the form of fatty acids
Triglycerides Store energy primarily in the form of body fat
Phospholipids Are one constituent of cell membranes
Steroids Which are one constituent of cell membranes and assist with hormone synthesis
Prostaglandins Which regulate hormone action, enhance the immune system, and affect the inflammatory response
Inflammatory Response the way the body reacts to an injury
Proteins Serve many roles in the human body that can be generally classed as functional, in which the protein regulates a chemical reaction, or structural, in which the protein is a component in cells and tissues
Consists of amino acids, which are made of carbon hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in some cases, sulfur
Keratin, collagen, hemoglobin, myosin, and other structural proteins that form receptor sites in cell membranes
Pore An opening in a surface that allows materials to pass through
Sexual Maturation The process of developing secondary sexual characteristics and becoming able to reproduce
Antibody A protein molecule that will bind to foreign substances in the body
Enzyme a Protein that acts as a catalyst in a chemical reaction
Nucleic Serve to encode and decode information required for the production of structural protein
Nucleotides which are made of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of five base chemicals that include nitrogen
Deoxyribonucleic Acid which is a double strand of nucleotides with a structure that defines the code of inherited traits
Ribonucleic Acid which is a single strand of nucleotides that synthesizes protein
Genetic Code The sequence of bases in DNA that determines how the organism will be structured
Isotonic A solution that has the same concentration of dissolved particles as the solution to which it is compared
Hypertonic A solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles that the solution to which it is compared
Hypotonic A solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles that the solution to which it is compaired
Created by: llc1980



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