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A&P mod 1

organization of the human body

Anatomy the scientific study of the structure of an organism that describes the size, shape, construction, and relative positions of the organs in the body.
physiology the scientific study of the functions of an organism that describes how the organs work independently and in relation to the whole organism.
Organism a living person, animal, or plant.
Organ a special structure within the body that is arranged in an organized manner to perform a specific function.
Median Plane a lengthwise plane running through the midline of the body from front to back and dividing the body into equal right and left halves. NOTE: the median plane is also referred to as the midline plane or mid
Sagittal Plane a lengthwise plane running parallel to the median plane but not through the midline and dividing the body into unequal left and right parts.
Coronal Plane a lengthwise plane running from side to side and dividing the body into front and back parts. NOTE: a coronal plane is also called a frontal plane. A coronal plane that passes through an organ creates a longitudinal section of the organ.
Transverse Plane a horizontal plane passing through the body from front to back dividing it into equal upper and lower parts. NOTE: a transverse plane is also called a horizontal plane or cross
Superior More toward the head EX: the knee is superior to the ankle. NOTE: another term for superior is cephalic.
Inferior Farther from the head. EX: the wrist is inferior to the elbow. NOTE: another term for inferior is caudal.
Anterior More toward the front of the body EX: the nose is anterior to the ears NOTE: another term for anterior is ventral
Posterior More toward the backside of the body EX: the heel is posterior to the toes NOTE: another term for posterior is dorsal
Proximal Nearer to a point of reference EX: the neck is proximal to the head as compared to the stomach
Distal Farther from a point of reference EX: the elbow is distal to the hand as compared to the wrist
Medial closer to the midline of the body EX: the eyes are medial as compared to the ears
Lateral Farther from the midline of the body EX: the hips are lateral as compared to the naval
Internal Below the surface EX: the heart and lungs are internal
Exterior on the surface EX: the skin is exterior
Deep away from the surface EX: the kidneys are deep
Superficial near the surface EX: a rash of the skin is superficial
Central at or near the middle EX: the nose is central on the face
Peripheral at or near the edge EX: the toes are peripheral to the foot
Visceral within a body cavity EX: most internal organs are visceral
Cephalic referring to the head or to the head end of a structure NOTE: Another term for cephalic is cranial
Caudal Referring to the tail or tail end of a structure
Palmer Referring to the palm of the hand
Plantar Referring to the sole of the foot
Greater Curvature Referring to the outer and longer portion of a curved structure
Lesser Curvature Referring to the inner and shorter portion of a curved structure
Erect Standing or sitting upright
Prone Lying down on the stomach
Lateral Lying on one side
Examination An evaluation of a persons' health based on appearance, feelings and behaviors, and the status of indicators of health such as temperature, blood pressure, & body chemistry
Anesthetize To create in a patient a loss of sensation, with or without a loss of consciousness; to create a condition of anesthesia in a patient; to administer an anesthetic
Surgery A medical procedure intended to correct physical defects, repair injuries, or treat diseases, especially through the use of medical instruments
Gland Any of the various structures within the body that produce specific chemicals to help with the functions of the body
Perineum The area of tissue behind the pelvis that gives passage to the urinary and genital ducts and to the rectum
Vital Organ An organ that must function properly in order for the life of the organism to continue
Fatal resulting in death
System A group of organs and related structures that work together to perform a common function
Cranial Cavity Brain and pituitary gland
Spinal Cavity Spinal cord
Pleural Cavities One lung in each
Pericardial Cavity Heart
Mediastinal Space Thymus gland, trachea, esophagus,bronchi, ends of the vena cavae, beginning of the aorta
Abdominal Cavity Stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, most of the small and large intestines, kidneys
Pelvic Cavity Urinary bladder, sex organs, part of the large intestine, including the cecum, appendix, and rectum
Inflammation A group of reactions exhibited by tissue when exposed to irritants; the reactions may include swelling, heat, pain, and other signs
Right Upper Quadrant Part of the small intestine including the descending duodenum, upper ascending colon, most of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, head of the pancreas, right adrenal gland, right kidney, upper part of the right ureter
Left Upper Quadrant Ascending part of the duodenum, upper descending colon, left half of the transverse colon, spleen, small part of the liver, left adrenal gland, left kidney, upper part of the left ureter, stomach
Right Lower Quadrant Lower ascending colon, cecum, appendix, lower right ureter, terminal ileum, part of the urinary bladder, sex organs
Left Lower Quadrant Lower descending colon, small intestine (part of the ileum), part of the urinary bladder, sex organs
Umbilicus The point at which the umbilical cord joined the fetus to the mother's womb during pregnancy; commonly referred to as the naval or belly button
Cartilage A type of body tissue that forms the skeleton of the developing fetus, most of which is converted to bone after birth
Major Body Structures Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
Structure A part of the body, such as the heart, a bone, a gland, a cell, or a limb
Integumentary System Protects the organism from injury, disease, and infections; aids in the regulation of temperature, the excretion of wastes, and the reception of sensations Skin, hair, nails, duct glands
Skeletal System Provides the framework for the body and works to protect and support the body Bones, joints, cartilage, connective tissue
Muscular System Provides for body movement and support Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles
Nervous System Coordinates body activities by receiving, interpreting, and concluding messages to all the other systems of the body Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Special Senses Function in receiving sensations such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste Eyes, ears, nose, taste buds
Digestive System Receives, breaks down, and absorbs food substances and excretes waste products Mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, large and small intestines, accessory organs such as the gallbladder and pancreas
Circulatory System transports materials throughout the body by carrying oxygen and nutrients in the blood to all the cells of the body and carrying away the waste products of the cells Heart, blood vessels, blood, lymphatic tissues
Respiratory System Takes in oxygen from the air and gives off carbon dioxide, which is produced by cell metabolism Lungs, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea
Urinary System Serves in removing waste products from the blood and in excreting wastes in the form of urine Kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra
Reproductive System Involved with reproduction and childbirth Sex organs and ducts to the outside
Endocrine System Serves to regulate various body functions through glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood to slow down or increase the activity of the cells Ductless glands (EX: thyroid, pituitary)
Immune System Provides protection against disease and infection White blood cells, antibodies
Created by: llc1980



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