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Disease Blood Vessel

MEDOP 230- Cardiology: Diseases of the Blood Vessel

TermDefinitionNote
Aneurysm An area of dilation and weakness in the wall of an artery. •Weakened areas balloon with each heartbeat and can rupture without warning.•A dissecting aneurysm enlarges by tunneling between layers of the artery wall.
Arteriosclerosis A progressive degenerative disease that produces narrowed, hardened artery walls. •Occurs as the arteries become hard and inflexible with age. •Also called arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).
Atherosclerosis Fatty deposits in the walls of arteries that can restrict blood flow. •Is a specific type of arteriosclerosis that begins with a small tear in the arterial endothelium.•Cholesterol builds up in the tear, leading to formation of an atheromatous plaque. •Growth of the plaque narrows the arterial lumen and may eventually block blood flow.
Bruit A harsh rushing sound made by turbulent blood as it passes through an artery narrowed by arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) Arteriosclerosis that occurs in the coronary arteries •May cause angina pectoris.•With blockage, MI may occur.
Hyperlipidemia Presence of elevated fat levels in the blood. •Hypercholesterolemia = high cholesterol levels •Hypertriglyceridemia = high triglyceride levels
Hypertension (HTN) Elevated blood pressure of > 120/80 mm Hg. •Diagnosis requires multiple BP readings.•With essential hypertension, cause is unknown.•With secondary hypertension, cause is known. •Hypertensive crisis (BP > 180/120 mm Hg) requires immediate intervention.
Hypotension Decreased blood pressure of < 90/60 mm Hg. •Usually caused by loss of blood volume.•Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden, temporary decrease in systolic BP upon standing.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD). Arteriosclerosis in the legs; may cause intermittent claudication (calf pain) and cyanosis of the toes and feet
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) Any disease of the arteries in the extremities; examples include PAD and Raynaud disease.
Phlebitis Infection or inflammation of a vein. •Causes pain and possible red streak on skin over the vein. •Thrombophlebitis involves presence of a clot.
Raynaud disease Sudden, severe vasoconstriction of arterioles in the fingers and toes, causing them to turn white or cyanotic
Varicose veins Condition in which damaged valves in a vein allow the backflow of blood, causing the vein to become distended and twisted. •May lead to pain and heaviness in the legs. •Often caused by phlebitis, injury, long periods of sitting or standing, and pregnancy.
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