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CCNN Integumentary

The Human Body in Health and Illness, Chap 7

QuestionAnswer
Epidermis The thin outer layer of skin. Two layers are the deeper stratum germinativum and the more superficial stratum corneum.
Stratum Germinativum Lies on top of the dermis, has access to a rich supply of blood. The cells of this layer are continuously dividing, producing million of cells a day.
Stratum Corneum Is the surface layer of the epidermis. Composed of about 30 layers of dead, flattened, keratinized cells. The dead cells are sloughed off (exfoliated or desquamated).
Insensible Perspiration 500 ml/day of water is lost through the skin.
Sensible Perspiration Due to the activity of the sweat glands.
Keratin Hardens, flattens the cells as they move toward the outer surface of the skin. Makes the skin water-resistant.
Hypovolemic Shock Fluid loss from insensible perspiration due to the epidermis being damaged, this is shock due to low volume
Subcutaneous Layer or Hypodermis Is composed primarily of loose connective and adipose tissue. Protects body from extreme temperature and anchors the skin to underlying areas.
Melanocytes Secrete a skin darkening pigment called melanin.
Melanin Stains the surrounding cells, causing darkening.
Vitiligo Condition that involves a loss of pigment, melanin, in certain areas of skin, creating white patches.
Albinism Melanocytes completely fail to secrete melanin, causing causing skin, hair, eyes (iris)to be white.
Freckles and Moles Melanin that becomes concentrated in in local areas.
Sebacceous Glands or Oil Glands Or oil glands are associated with hair follicles. Secrete an oily substance called sebum. Vernix Caseosa, what a new born is covered in
Sudoriferous Glands or Sweat Glands Located in the dermis, secrete sweat. There are two types of sweat glands - apocrine glands and eccrine glands.
Appocrine Glands Associated with hair follicles, found in the axillary and genital areas. Respond to emotional stress, frightened, upset, in pain or sexually excited.
Eccrine Glands Located throughout the body, especially on the forehead, neck, back, upper lip, palms and soles. Not associated with hair follicles. Plays an important role in temperature by evaporation from skin surface heat is lost.
Sensible Perspiration The eccrine glands are responsible for sensible perspiration which when working optionally can secrete 1 gallon of sweat per hour.
Mammary Glands Modified sweat glands in the breast that secrete milk.
Cerminous Glands In the auditory canal of the ear and secrete cerumen or ear wax.
Core Temperature Higher temperature is from the inner parts of the body (cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities). About 1 degree higher than the normal body temperature.
Shell Temperature Lower temperature is from the surface parts of the body (mouth and skin). About 1 degree lower than the core body temperature.
Thermoregulation The mechanism where the body balances heat production and loss.
Heat Loss Can be dissipated by radiation, conduction, and convection.
Radiation Heat is lost from a warm object (body) to the cooler air surrounding it.
Conduction Loss of heat from a warm body to a cooler object that is in contact with the warm body.
Convection Loss of heat by currents moving over the surface of the skin.
Hypothalmus The body's thermostat.
Increased Temperature Blood vessels dilate, giving flushed appearance. Sweat glands become more active.
Decreased Temperature Blood vessels constrict, heat is trapped in deeper tissues. Sweat glands become less active. Skeletal muscles contract causing shivering.
Nonshivering Thermogenesis Brown fat in the neonate scattered throughout. BAT brown adipose tissue.
Eschar Dead burned tissue.
Created by: DebraF