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Chapter 13 AP Euro

Protestant Reformation A period of time in the Renaissance started by Luther and the 95 Theses that reformed the Catholic Church due to the high number of abuses done by the church. Protestants, Lutherans, and Anabaptists were the primary Christian branches that came from it.
Christian Humanism A philisophical union of classical ideas and church dogma. Stated that human freedom, human art, individualism, and equality could work with, and perhaps be intrinsic in, church principles. Christian humanists argued that secular and religious educations
Erasmus Was a Dutch Catholic priest who supported the reform of the Catholic Church, and opposed the clerical abuses within. He wrote in eloquent Latin and was a humanist, along with a devout Christian. Supported individualism, humanism, and classicalism
Martin Luther (1/2) German monk who wrote the 95 Theses and was credited with starting the reformation. Was extremely vocal against induglences and other abuses by the Catholic Church. Supported BIbles in vernacular languages, and started the Protestant and Lutheran churches
95 Theses An essay by Martin Luther that included 95 different issues pertaing to inulgences within the Catholic Church that was nailed to the door of a Catholic Church in Wittenburg. Started the reformation and public outcry from peasants. One of the most impactfu
John Calvin Protestant French pastor and reformer in Geneva. Created Calvinism, and the idea that God has absolute sovereignty in the salvation of a sould and/or eternal damnation. Originally a humaist lawyer, and wrote commentaries on Bibles and confessions. Also ha
Anabaptists Anabaptists were radical reformers. Most well-known tenet is adult baptism. Started by Ulrich Zwingli. Claimed "separate" from any branch of Christianity, and radically reformed the Catholic Church. Violently persecuted by Catholics and Protestants alike.
Catholic Reformation/Counter reformation A reformation done by the Catholic Church to change their own customs to gain back followers. Created new schools primarily, which increased the number of adherants. Jesuits helped with this because they created so many schools known for their quality.
Jesuits Also known as the Society of Jesus. approved by Pope Paul III. Known for their pilgrimages all around the world, oftentimes in extreme conditions. Formed by Ignatius after sustaining a wound on the battlefield. Preaches poverty, chastity, and obedience.
Council of Trent Catholic council of clergy and the papacy between 1545 and 1563. Issued many amendments to Catholic dogma and scripture. Was known for spearheading anti-reformation. Called proponents of Protestantism heretics.
Henry VIII The King of England that led the disassociation of the Roman Catholic Church and England. Caused by his desire to become divorced, but was refused by Pope Clement II.
Elizabeth I The daughter that Henry VIII had with his mistress, Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn shortly after she became pregnant to ensure that if she had a male heir, he would become King. To his disappointment, it was a girl. Was the first queen of Eng
French Wars of Religion A set of 4 wars in France between the Catholics and Protestants that led to the demise of 3 million people. Caused by Catherine de Medici's persecution of the Huguenots. The end result was almost no Huguenots remained. Was ended by the Edict of Nantes whi
Edict of Nantes 1598 A law written by the King of France that ended the Wars of Religion. Stated that Catholics as well as Protestants are both valid groups of society and should be seen as such. Was written to end the war, although nearly all Huguenots had died/left.
Religious Pluralism The idea that fundamentally, everyone has an inherent right to worship and follow whichever religion they please. Or, they do not have to practice faith if they do not wish to do so. Anabaptists preached this idea and as a result were massacred.
Indulgences Ability to pay money to a priest, bishop, or pope to have all your sins forgiven. Benefited the wealthy, form of corruption, and main cause of the reformation.
Spanish Inquisition A period of time in Spain where Protestants, Jews, and Muslims were all persecuted. There were public burnings, and forced deportations. This was to make the centralized government even stronger.
Sir Thomas More Spoke out against the English government for their reformation. The new laws in England said that loyalty to the Roman pope was considered treason. Thomas More argued against this and was promptly tried and executed.
St. Bartholemews' Day Massacre Was a targeted group of assassinations and Catholic mob violence directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) during the French Wars of Religion. Believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici in 1572.
Book of Common Prayer A book containing common prayers and procedures for weekly worship, weddings, funerals, etc. in the Protestant Church.
Index of Prohibited Books An index of publications deemed to be heretic by the Catholic Church. Included many secular as well as religious works. Anything harmful to the church was deemed prohibited.
Puritans Group of Protestants that said that Protestantism was still too closely tied to the Catholic Church and any religious ceremonies not directly tied to the Bible should be eradicated.
Catherine de Medici A Queen of France who relentlessly persecuted the Huguenots and supported he Catholics. She restricted their rights, publicly executed them, etc. Responsible for starting the Wars of Religion and instigating the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
Huguenots A name for French Calvinists. A group of Protestants who believed in all Protestant ideas with the addition of the sovereignty of God. And, predestination, where everyone is already assigned to heaven/hell. Still believed in the fundamental Protestant/Lut
Simony The practice of selling church offices, roles, or holy power for money. Comes from Simon Magus who tried to buy the power of being able to give blessings from two Disciples.
Martin Luther (2/2) Eradicated the mass, and made sure that the Protestant and Lutheran churches were more inclusive. Rewrote the entire New Testament in German while in exile. Said that good deeds did not get you into heaven, rather, faith in God and Jesus did.
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