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Human Anatomy 2

Human Anatomy Chapter 2

matter Something that takes up space. ex...gas, liquid(everywhere) and solid(you can touch or feel it)
CHON 96% of body. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
elements proton, neutron and electron
Na+, Cl-, Ca++, K+ (ions) sodium, cloride, calcium and potasium
atoms molcules-compounds 1st shell wants 2, 2nd shell wants 8. Balanced, always in motion
NaCl sodium cloride
H2O water
Types of bonds ionic(gives up), covalent(sharing), hydrogen({60' curves} only happens in water. What happens when you pour kool-aid into water, it sepereates and falls to the bottom when not stirred)
Energy the capacity to do work (kinetic-energy in motion, potential-energy stored and ready to go)
Forms of energy chemical, ATP, electrical, nervous system, mechanical and radiant
chemical fuels, protein shakes
ATP adenosine tri-phosphate, is the gasoline in your body, fuel in your body
electrical nervous system (shock)
mechanical movement
radiant 2 places (eyes)
chemical reactions bonds broken, made or rearranged
shown as equasions H+O+H > H2O2+H+O > H2O
exchange or displace trading one thing for another
oxidation/recluction gives off water C6H12O6 (simple sugar, exogenic and endogenic)
exogenic giving off, breaking down simple sugar
endogenic storing for later (fat)
factors affecting the chemical reactions temperature, concentration, particle size and catalysts {emzymes})
temperature speeds up everything in your body
concentration how much is abailable for use
particle size whoever is bigger gets the most
catalysts (emzymes) you need this to break down your food
Five phases of mitosis interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
osis means to change
cyto means cell
kinesis means to create
interphase the growth phase of a cell divided into three subphases: G1-growth and biochemical recharge, S-begins duplication of DNA, G2protiens for cell reproduction and mitotic spindles generated.
prophase chromotids are visible within the nucleus(they look like worms)
metaphase chromotids line up in the middle of the nucleus
anaphase the chromotids migrate toward opposite ends of the cell in two distinct groups
telophase new nuclear membranes begin to form and chromosomes (one set) disppurse into chromatin in two new nucleuses and cell walls begin to converge or "pinch in" toward independence.
cytokinesis two cells, duplicates, are completely separate with their own cell walls and "twin" cells
cells basic unit of life-not always round
cytoplasm the fluid of the cell enclosed by the PM (plasma membrane)
organelles the contents of the cell that makes it different another cell.
nucleoplasm the fluid of the nucleus which the cucleolus and chromatin floats within
nucleolus the location of Ribose Nucleic Acid or RNA. (RNA is the messenger of DNA it brings the message out of the nucleus into the rest of the cell.)
nuclear membrane another cell membrace that encloses the nucleus and holds the nucleolus and nucleoplasm within it
nucleus the comparable "brain" of the cell
cell membrane/plasma membrane (PM) phospholipids with a hyfrophilic (water liking) head and hydrophobic (water hating) tail. heads face inside and outside while tails line up in middle. May contain many, many ridges (fingerlike projections)to increase surface area of the cell.
mitrochondria the furnace of the cell. Creates energy for the cell to run on. APT made here
golgi apparatus (complex) storage and concentration of proteins.
ribosome on rough ER(endoplasmic reticulum), this finishes protein units and joins them together.
endoplasmic reticulum package and ship
smooth layered like old fashioned hard candy- thought to be involved with steroid production
rough join the nuclear membrane and is "studded" with robosomes. Ships out proteins to the rest of the cell, receives information from RNA.
vacuoles shippers of the cell-move things from place to place within the cell or outside of it.
exocytosis expels contents outside the cell
endocytosis takes outside products inside the cell
lysosmes the "garbage cans" or digestion of the cell. Contain enzymes. May sometimes join vacuoles to "empty" contents by disintegrating and exocytosis
centrioles pair of cylanders that are absolutely necessary for nuclear duplication (mitosis) create spindles to pull chromosomes apart.
Created by: rbrandt



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