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anatomy (ana)up (tomy)process of cutting. is primarily the study of structure and the relationships among structures.
physiology (physio)nature (logy)study of. deals with the functions of body pary-that is, how they work.
microscopic anatomy is the study of the form of normal structures seen under the microscope
gross anatomy structures that can be examined without using a microscope
surface anatomy is a descriptive science dealing with anatomical features that can be studied by sight, without dissecting an organism.
CFL Characteristics, Function and Location
4 types of Macromolecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids
3 MAJOR PHASES OF A CELL CYCLE I-Interphase M-Mitosis C-Cytokinesis
Interphase cell spends majority of its time and performs majority of its purposes including preparation for cell division.
G1 Phase cell grows and functions normally, a lot of protein synthesis occurs. 8-10 hours. -cell metabolically active;duplicates organelles and cytosolic components;centrosome replication begins.
Synthesis replication of DNA. As a result, the two identical cells formed during cell division will have the same genetic material. last about 2 hours.
G2 Phase cell growth continues. enzymes and other proteins are synthesized;replication of centrosome is completed. last 4-6 hours.
micrometer 0.000001
cell cycle the process by which cells reproduces themselves. two types are somatic cell division and reproductive cell division.
somatic cell division cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis to produce two identical cells, this replaces dead or injured cells and adds new ones during tissue growth.
reproductive cell division mechanism that produces gametes, the cells needed to form the next generation of sexually reproducing organisms.
4 PRIMARY TYPES OF TISSUE Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous
Epithelium covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts; it also forms glands. This tissue allows the body to interact with both its internal and external environments.
Connective Tissue protects and supports the body and its organs. Various types of connective tissue binds organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and help provide immunity to disease-causing organisms.
Muscular Tissue composed of cells specialized for contraction and generation of force.In the process, muscular tissue generate heat that warms the body. *produce movement.
Nervous Tissue detects change in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses that activate muscular contractions and glandular secretions. *allows body to respond, keeps track of everything that is going on in body.
Metaphase the paired up chromatids(sister chromatids) line up at the metaphase plate.
Mitosis Nuclear division; distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate nuclei.
Prophase chromatin fibers condense into sister chromatids; nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear; each centrosome moves to an opposite pole of the cell.
Anaphase centromeres split; sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear; chromosomes resume chromatin form; mitotic spindle disappears. pinching of membrane starts and cleavage furrow develops.
Cytokinesis physical separation into two seperate cells.
sister chromatids identical copies of a chromosome connected by a centromere.
chromosomes composed of DNA and proteins that form a delicate chromatin thread during interphase.
M PHASE vs. CYTOKENISIS the duplicated chromosomes seperate in the M phase while the cells splits in two in cytokinesis.
Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to regulate physiologically its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather.
negative feedback Decreases the deviation to return back to the set point
positive feedback increases the deviation to take you further away from your set point.
anterior nearer to or at the front of the body ex. the nipple is anterior to the heart.
posterior nearer to or at the back of the body.
superior Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure. ex.the heart is superior to the liver
inferior Away from the head. Toward the lower part of a structure. ex.the stomach is inferior to the lungs.
proximal nearer to the attachment of limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure. ex.My elbow is proximal to my risk
distal farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure. ex.My pinky is distal to my elbow.
Ipsilateral same side of the body. My left arm is ipsilateral to my left leg.
Contralateral opposite side of the body. my right arm is contralateral to my left leg.
Medial body part closer to the middle
Lateral farther from the midline
Axial Appendicular middle part legs, arms
Caudal Cranial at or near the tail. located in or involving the skull or cranium.
-oblique -transverse -sagittal -frontal -diagonal -aka horizontal, ex. left ear to right ear -vertical, ex. from nose to belly button -aka coronal, divides body organ into front and back portion.
-midsagittal plane (medial plane) -parasagittal -equal left and right -unequal left and right
Created by: charinaisabel