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Absorption Passage of Materials through the walls of the small intestine to the blood stream
Amino Acid Small building blocks of proteins and is released when proteins are digested
Amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary gland to digest starch
Anus Terminal end or opening to the outside of the body
Appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum
Bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder and breaks up large fat Globules composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
Bilirubin the pigment found in bile
Bowel Intestine
Canine Teeth pointed dog like teeth on the dental arch
Cecum first part of the large intestine
Colon Consists of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments; another name for the large intestines
Common Bile Duct carries bile form the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum/choledochus
Defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive track through the anus
Deglutition Swallowing
Dentin commonly found in teeth and covered by the enamel in the crown and is a protective layer of the cementum in the root
Digestion Break sown of complex foods into simpler forms
Duodenum first part of the small intestine; measures 12 inches
Elimination Act of removal of materials from the body
Emulsification physical process of breaking do up large fat globules into smaller ones
Enamel hard outer layer of the tooth
Enzyme chemical that speeds up reactions between substances; names always end in -ase
Esophagus tube that connects the throat to the stomach
Fatty Acids substance produced when fats are digested and a category of lipids
Feces solid waste/stool
Gallbladder Small sac under the liver that stores bile
Glucose Simple sugar
Glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
Hydrochloric Acid Substance produced by the stomach necessary for digestion
ileum Third part of small intestine
incisor 1/4 front teeth in the dental arch
Jejunum hormone produced by endocrine cells in the pancreas that transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation in the liver
Lipase Pancreatic enzyme needed to digest fat
Liver large organ in the RUQ of the abdomen that secrets bile, stores sugar, iron, and vitamins, produces blood proteins, destroys RBC's, filters toxins, weighs 2 1/2- 3lbs
Lower Esophageal Sphincter (Cardiac Sphincter) ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach; cardiac sphincter
Mastication Chewing
Molar Teeth 6th,7th,8th teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
Palate roof of mouth
Pancreas organ behind the stomach that produces enzymes and insulin
Papillae/Papilla small bumps on the tongue
Peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
Pharyxn Throat; the common passage way for food from mouth or air from nose
Portal Vein large vein that brings blood from the liver to the intestines
Protease Enzymes that digest protein
Pulp soft tissue within the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels
Pyloric Sphincter ring of muscles at the end of the stomach near the duodenum and it opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
Pylorus Distal region of the stomach/opening to the duodenum
Rectum last section of the lar intestines connecting the end to the anus
Rugae ridges on the hard palate and on stomach wall
Saliva digestive juice produced by Salivary Gland and contains the enzyme amylase
Salivary glands Patroid, sublingual ,and submandibular glands
Sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage/closes a natural opening
Stomach Muscular organ that receives food from esophagus
Triglycerides Fat molecules composed of fatty Acids and one part glycerol/subgroup of lipids
Uvula soft tissue hanging in the middle of the soft palate
Villi/Villus Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients into the blood stream
Sigmoid Colon 4th and last S-shaped segment of the colon that starts just before the rectum and empties into it
Rein Enzymatic hormone in adjusting blood pressure
Erythroprotein Hormone that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
Calciferol Active form of vitamin D necessary for absorption of calcium from the small intestine
Arteriole Small artery
Calyx/Calix Cup like region of the renal pelvis that carries blood to the capillaries
Catheter tube used for injecting or removing fluids
Cortex outer region of the organ
Creatinine nitrogenous waste execrated in urine
Electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water
Filtration Process whereby some substances pass through a filter
Glomerular capsule enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus; also called bowman capsule
Glomerulus Tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney
Hilum depression in the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
Kidney one of two bean shaped organs that filter waste from the blood stream to form urine
Meatus opening or canal
Medulla inner region of an organ
Nephron The functional unit of the kidney where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place
Nitrogenous Waste substances containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
Potassium (k+) An electrolyte regulated by the kidney
Reabsorption Renal tubes return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
Renal Artery Blood vessel that caries blood to the kidneys
Renal Pelvis Central Collecting region in the kidney
Renal tubules Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
Renal Vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidneys
Renin Hormone secreted by the kidney that raises blood pressure
sodium (NA+) An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; common form is sodium chloride or salt
Trigone Triangular area in the urinary Bladder
Urea Major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
Ureter One of two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Urethra tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Uric Acid Nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine
Urinary Bladder Hollow muscular sac that holds/stores urine
Urination/Voiding Process of expelling urine
Chyme A semi-liquid, Partially digested mass that passes to the small intestines
Calorie A unit used to measure the amount of energy in foods
Nutrient Substances in foods that supply energy and raw materials your body needs for growth and repair
Alimentary Canal The one way tube that passes through the body beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus
Vitamins Complex organic molecules that activate enzymes and help them function
Water essential component used for chemical reactions in the body as well as used for cooling the body
Bolus A ball of thoroughly moistened/chewed food that passes down the esophagus
Lacteal Lymphatic vessels that absorbs fatty acids and glycerol from the small intestines
Hard Palate The boney roof of the mouth
Epiglottis Prevents food from entering the trachea or windpipe
Larynx (Voice Box) a hollow, tubular structure connected to the top of the trachea; air passes through the larynx on its way to the lungs.
Created by: ElinorW.
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