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Chapters 11-12 AP Eu

Renaissance A period of time in Europe where there was a revival of classical Roman and Greek ideas concerning art, ethics, linguistics, etc.
Northern Renaissance A renewal in classical Greek and Roman ideas in northern Europe that occurred in the late 15th century.
Humanists Professors and government officials who taught classical Greek and Roman ideas on the basis of art, ethics, etc.
Secularism Not relating to religion, generally speaking in terms of Renaissance Europe, not relating to Christianity. Also, the belief that life is worth living and not just an intense labor to get into heaven.
Individualism The belief in self-development and liberty for one self. The Renaissance was a time where the value of a human being and self-worth along with equity was being explored.
Civic humanism If you are an educated person, you have an obligation to partake in participation in public, voting, and being an active participant in society.
Printing Press A device used to print books more efficiently and mass produce them. Argued to be the most valuable invention in all of human history. Created in China by Gutenberg and allowed for the printing of millions of Bibles and universal access to knowledge.
Secular Having no religious basis. The Renaissance was a time where secular and pagan works of art were being created, even for popes (Julius II)
Vernacular Language Language that is used in everyday speech, including slang. Different than literary language.
Patronage of Art Wealthy or powerful individuals such as the pope or king providing funds to painters, sculptors, etc.
Galen Greek physician, philosopher, and scholar. Argued to be the most accomplished medical scholar of antiquity. Influenced modern neurology, logic, medical ethics, etc.
Alchemy A speculative form of thought to transform base metals and elements to create cures and treatments, etc.
Astrology The idea that celestial bodies have a direct impact on everyday human life.
The Prince Machiavelli Machiavelli's book argues that someone should step up and unite Italy to drive out French and Spanish forces. Said that all princes should try and be virtuous, but said that it is better to be feared than to be loved. Also said the ends justify the means.
Serfdom A group of people in the feudal system who were peasants that were required to do intense physical labor.
Nepotism The practice among powerful individuals to favor their relatives or friends.
Petrarch Italian poet and scholar, who is credited with being one of the first founders of humanism. Discovered Cicero's letters. He is most famous for his vernacular poems. Encouraged people to find books.
Michelangelo Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence. Most famous for The Creation of Adam. Reflects individualism, classicalism, humanism, and even secularism.
Leonardo da Vinci .Created many classical paintings in the time of the Renaissance, used realistic and detailed strategies when painting, painted biblical scenes and was integral to the Renaissance. Classical, humanist, and individualist. Arguably most impactful artist.
Niccolo Machiavelli Machiavelli wrote "The Prince," a highly influential political book that instructed princes on how to run the government. He was also an ethical philosopher,
Pico della Mirandola Philosopher and scholar of ethics. Argued in favor of individualism, stating that all art is praise to God. He stated this because he claimed that since all are created by God, usage of the talents given to us by God is a way to praise him.
Donatello Italian sculptor of the Republic of Florence, who was known for his detailed, painstaking, large statues that were derived from classical Roman and Greek artistic styles. His works have been incredibly impactful on the world of art.
Jan Van Eyck Jan van Eyck is argued to have created the process of oil painting. He spearheaded the Early Netherlandish painting movement, and contributed significantly to that art style, one of the most important in the Northern Renaissance.
Indulgences A purchase that anyone could make to priests that would allow them to buy forgiveness from God. Heavily favored aristocrats as they could afford to buy lots of them.
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