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Anatomy Terms


Integumentary System Provides protection, regulates temperature, reduces water loss, and produces vitamin D precursors.
Organism Level Any single living thing.
Organ System Level Group of organs functioning together to serve common function.
Organ Level One or more tissues functioning together.
Tissue Level Group of similar cells and materials surrounding them.
Cell Level A cell and its organelles (mitochondria).
Chemical Level Interaction of atoms or molecules (DNA,H2O)
Excercise Physiology Changes in structure and function caused by exercise.
Pathology Structural and functional changes caused by disease Ex:Structures of air sacs degrade our ability/function to jog 5 miles is change.
Cardiovascular The heart and blood vessels.
Neurophysiology Focus on the nervous system.
Cell Physiology Process within the cells.
Histology Study of tissue; The collection of cells.
Body positions Supine: Lying face upwardProne: Lying face downward
Developement Changes in an organism over time.Differentiation: Cells change from general to specific. One type of cell can lead to many different types of blood cells.Morphogenesis: Change in shape of tissue, organs, or organism.
Growth Increase in size and or number of cells.
Anatomical Position Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward.
Microscopic Structures seen with the microscope.
Cytology Cellular anatomy; Parts making up a single cell.
Systemic Studied system by system (circulatory).
Regional Anatomy Studies area by ares (head, abdomen, arms).
Surface External form and relation to deeper structures. (See or feel/palpated the sternum-heart is beneath it).
Response Produced by the effector changing the variable back to set point.
Stimulus Deviation from the set point, detected by the receptor.
Reproduction Formation of new cells or new organisms.
Responsiveness Ability to sense changes/stimuli and adjust if needed.
Metabolism Life invloves chemical reactions.
Organization State in which the parts are not randomly situated but organizred to maximize function, parts must interact.
Sagittal Seperates Left and Right parts of the body.
Coronal Divides body into posterior & anterior sections "PAC".
Transverse Divides body into superior and inferior sections "SIT".
Oblique "Odd" at angle other than 90 or 0 degree.
Longitudinal Cut along the length of an organ.
Cross/Transverse Cut at right angle to length of the organ.
Diaphram A muscle that divides the body cavity into THERACTIC and ABDOMINOPELVIC cavities.
Mediastinum Contains all structures of the thorack cavity except the lungs, it divides the lungs.
Serous Membranes Cover the organs inside cavities but also lines the cavity themselves.
Pericardium Refers to Heart.
Pleura Refers to lungs.
Peritoneum Refers to abdominopelvic cavity.
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass The amount of matter in an object.
Weight The gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass.
Element The simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties; composed of atoms of only one kind. (H or O)
Atom Smallest particles of an element that has chemical characteristics of that element.
Neutrons No electrical charge.
Protons One positive charge.
Electrons One negative charge,orbit nucleus.
Nucleus Formed by protons and neutrons.
Atomic Number Equals to number of protons (+) in each atom, which is equal to the number of electrons.
Mass Number Number of protons (+) plus number of neutrons.
Isotopes Two or more forms of same element with same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons.Ex: there are 3 types of hydrogen, denoted by using symbol of element preceded by mass number as 1H,2H,3H.
Atomic Mass Average mass of naturally occurring isotopes.
Radioactive Isotopes Forms of atoms that emit radioactivity such as gamma rays, which can than be measured. -Used clinically and in research.
Intramolecular bonding Occurs when outermose electrons are either shared with or transferred to another atom.
Ionic Bonding Atoms exchange electrons, one lost it and other gained it.
Covalent Bonding Two or more atoms share electron pairs.
Ion An atom loses or gains electrons and becomes charged. (+/-)
Cation Positively charged ion.
Anion Negatively charged ion.
What is the symbol for Phosphate? PO
What is the symbol for Magnesium? Mg
What is the symbol for Iodide? I
What is the symbol for calcium? Ca
Significance of Phosphate? Part of bones and teeth, energy exchange, acid-base balance.
Significance of Magnesium? Necessary for enzymes.
Significance of Iodide? Present in thyroid hormones.
Significance of calcium? Part of bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction, release os neurotransmitters.
Molecules 2 or more atoms chemically combined to form an independent unit.Ex: (H2)
Compound A substance/molecule composed of 2 or more different types of atoms chemically combined.Ex: (H2O)
Intermolecular forces Forces between molecules.
Ionic Bond A complete transfer of electrons between two atoms results in seperate positively charged and negatively charged ions.
Polar Covalent Bond An unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms results in a slight positive charge on one side of the molecule and slight negative charge on the other side of the molecule.
Hydrogen Bond The attraction of oppositely charged ends of one polar molecule to another polar molecule holds molecules or parts of molecules together.
Solubility Ability of one substance to dissolve in another.Ex: Sugar or salt dissolves in water.
Electrolyte Solutions made by the dissociation of cations (+) and anions (-) in water.
Nonelectrolytes Solutions made by molecules that dissolve in water, but do not dissociate; do not conduct eletricity.
Subdivision of the abdomen Right hypochondriac regionRight lumbar regionRight iliac regionEpigastric regionUmbilical regionHypogastric regionLeft hypochondriac regionLeft lumbar regionLeft iliac region
Chemical Reactions Atoms, ions, molecules or compounds interact to form or break chemical bonds.
Reactants Substances that enter into a chemical reaction.
Products Substances that result from the reaction.
Created by: oluohab