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Helath: Unit 6.4

The Skeletal System Abbv.s and Definitions

AKA above-knee amputation
BKA below-knee amputation
DJD Degenerative joint disease
Fx fracture
LS lumbosacral
ORIF open reduction internal fixation
PROM passive range of motion
RA rheumatoid arthritis
RF rheumatoid factor
ROM range of motion
THR total hip replacement
TKA total knee arthroplasty
TKR total knee replacement
TMJ temporomandibular joint
TX, Tx traction
Appendicular Skeleton Set of bones that forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder gridle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones.
Axial Skeleton Forms the main trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone.
Carpals Bones of the wrist
Clavicle Collarbone
Cranium Part of the skull; the eight bones of the head that enclose the brain
Diaphysis The shaft, or middle section, of a long bone.
Endosteum Membrane lining the medullary canal of a bone. It keeps the yellow marrow intact and it produces some bone growth.
Epiphysis The two ends of a long bone
Femur Thigh Bone
Fibula Outer and smaller bone of the lower leg.
Fontanels Soft spots in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs. They are mad eof membrane & cartilage and turn into solid bone by approximately 18 months of age.
Foramina Openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone.
Humerus Upper arm bone.
Joints Areas where two bones or more bones join together with ligaments. There are three types.
Diathrosis A type of freely movable joint (ex. ball and socket joints in the hip)
Amphiarthrosis A type of slightly movable joint (ex. attachment of the ribs to the toracic vertebrae)
Synarthrosis A type of immovable joint (ex. the cranium)
Ligaments Connective tissue bands that help hold long bones together at the joints.
Medullary Canal Inner, or central, portion of a long bone which is a cavity that is filled with yellow marrow.
Metacarpals Five bones that make up the palm of the hand.
Metatarsals Five bones that make the instep of the foot.
Os Coxae The hipbone; formed by the union of the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Patella Kneecap
Periosteum A tough membrane that covers the outside of a bone. It contains blood vessels, lympf vessels, and osteoblasts. It is necessary for bone growth, repair, and nutrition.
Osteoblasts Special cells that form new bone tissue.
Phalanges Bones of the fingers and toes.
Radius Bone of the lower arm on the thumb's side.
Red Marrow It produces red blood cells, platelets, and some white blood cells. It is found in certain bones such as the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, and in the proximal parts of the humerus and the femur.
Ribs Also called costae; twelve pairs of narrow, curved bones that surround the thoracic cavity.
Scapula Shoulder Bone
Sinuses Air pockets in the bones of the skull that provide resonance for the voice. They are covered with a mucous membrane.
Skeletal System A system in the body that contains all the bones in the body.
Sternum The breastbone.
Sutures Areas where the cranial bones have joined together.
Tarsals Ankle bone
Tibia Inner and larger bone of the lower leg, beneath the knee and above the ankle.
Ulna Larger bone of the lower arm with a projection called the oleranon process at its upper end, forming the elbow.
Vertebrae The bones that make up the spinal column. They protect the spinal cord and provide support for the head and trunk.
Yellow Marrow Mainly fat cells.



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