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Chapter 18-Endocrine System

Enlargement of the thyroid gland is called a _____________. goiter
Overactivity of the thyroid gland. hyperthyroidism
The most common form of hyperthyroidism. Graves disease
Protrusion of the eyeballs due to hyperthyroidism. exophthalmos
Deficient production of parathyroid hormone. hypoparathyroidism
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Cushing syndrome
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex. Addison disease
Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells diabetes mellitus (DM)
This type of diabetes is brought on by hormonal changes during pregnancy. gestational diabetes
Enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty. acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from anterior lobe of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues gigantism
Congential hyposecretion of growth hormone. dwarfism
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). diabetes insipidus (DI)
Radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to assess thyroid function. radioactive iodine uptake scan
A scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive (technetium) compound. thyroid scan
This procedure is the most common procedure performed to treat pancreatic cancer Whipple procedure (aka pancreatuduodenectomy)
These glands secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands
These glands send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the body. Exocrine glands
Functions to support the body's "biological clock" and is thought to induce sleep. Melatonin
This gland has been linked to a mental condition, seasonal afffective disorder (SAD). pineal gland
Two of the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland. thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine)(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
This hormone produced by the thyroid gland is secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high. It stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones, thus lowering blood calcium back to normal. calcitonin
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries and testes)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
andr/o male
calc/o, calci/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)
phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o poison
ur/o urine
-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
-uria urine condition
eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive; above
hypo- deficient; below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three
ADH antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
BMR basal metabolic rate-an indicator of thryoid function, but not in current use
DI diabetes insipidus
DM diabetes mellitus
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT glucose tolerance test (measures ability to respond to a glucose load; a test for diabetes.
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus-type I diabetes
LH luteinizing hormone
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
PTH parathyroid hormone(parathormone)
STH somatotropin (growth hormone)
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
The adrenal cortex secretes three types of corticosteroids Glucocorticoids (influence sugar), Mineralocorticoids (regulates concentration of mineral salts), Sex hormones (androgens and estrogens)
The adrenal medulla secretest wo types of catecholamine hormones. Epinephrine (adrenaline); Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Created by: ljlindrose61



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