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ABO Review

Questions that will be on the ABO Basic

___________ _____________ are used for cutting screws cutting pliers
_____-_______ ________ are used for holding frames for adjustments and preventing marks on frames. double-padded pliers
_________ ____________ __________ check the lens fit. Eyewire closure pliers
_______-___________ _______ are for holding a frame securely, bending the temple, and restringing sem-rimless frames. Half-padded pliers
________-_________ _________ are used for adjusting the temple-fold angle. Finger-piece pliers
___ __________ are used for measuring the center thickness of lenses. Lens calipers
_________ _________ ________ (axis pliers) are used for adjusting lenses while in the frame and adjusting the axis of a lens. Lens twisting pliers
__________ __________ are used to adjust nosepads. Nosepad pliers
______ -______ _________ (needle-nose pliers) are used to adjust the nosepad arm. Snipe-nosed pliers
__________ __________ ___________ are used in changing pantoscopic angle and adjusting drill mount or rimless frames. Rimless bracing pliers
The ____ ______ (lens measure) is used to measure the base curve of a lens. Lens clock
The ______ _______ _________ is used for assistance with putting in screws. Screw holding tool
_____ _____ ________ help add a bend in the temple of frames. Temple bend pliers
______ ___________ are used for pantoscopic and retroscopic angle adjustments. Angling pliers
_______ ________ ____ ______ are used for adjusting bridges, endpieces, and temples. Double nylon jaw pliers
Light passing obliquely from a material of lesser optical density to a material of greater optical density will be bent _________ the normal. toward
light passing obliquely from a material of greater optical density to a material of lesser optical density will be bent ______the normal. away from
Where should the bifocal height be located for children? at the center of the pupil
Where should the fitting cross be set if a child is ordering PAL's? 4 mm above the pupil center
If someone has a long face, should they choose frames with higher eyewires or lower eyewires? lower
One prism diopter produces an image displacement of 1 cm of an object distance of ___ meter 1
Lower the OC 1 mm below the pupil center for every ___ degrees of pantascopic tilt to eliminate lens aberration caused by lens tilt. 2
For every diopter increase in BC, vd increases approximately __ mm 0.6
_____________ is the distance from a point on a wave to a corresponding point on the next wave wavelength
____________ is the number of waves that pass in 1 second. frequency
___________ is the distance that the wave will travel in a second Speed
__________ is the distance from the centerline to the peak or valley of the wave amplitude
the higher the energy, the ______________ the wavelength shorter
light travels at a speed approximately ____________ miles per second and ______________ meters per second 186000; 3 x 10^8
LAFS larger angle, fast side
____________ is when parallel rays of light come to a point focus behind the retina hyperopia
In axial hyperopia, the eye appears to be too_________ short
In refractive hyperopia, the refractive surface of the eye appear to be too __________, or eye has too little plus power. flat
________ is when parallel rays of light come to a point focus in front of the retina myopia
In axial myopia, the eye appears to be too_______ long
In refractive myopia, the refractive surface of the eye appears to be too_________, or eye has too much plus power steep
_____ ____ ________ astigmatism: -In minus cylinder form, axis within 30 degrees of the horizontal meridian. -In plus cylinder form, axis within 30 degress of the vertical meridian with the rule
_____ ____ ______ astigmatism -In minus cylinder form, axis within 30 degrees of the vertical meridian -In plus cylinder form, axis within 30 degrees of the horizontal meridian. against the rule
______ astigmatism is when the cylinder axis is from 31-59 degrees or from 121-149 degrees oblique
BU and BU BD and BD BI and BO canceling prisms
BU and BD BI and BI BO and BO compounding prisms
If a wearer has excessive/unwanted __________ prism, wearer feels as if floor is in the bottom of a bowl, people and vertical objects seem taller, and floor seems to slant uphill BD
If a wearer has excessive/unwanted_________ prism, wearer feels as if floor is a pitcher's mound, people and objects seem smaller, and the floor seems to slant downhill. BU
If a wearer has excessive/unwanted _______ or ______ prism, the side that includes the base appears higher than the side with the apex, wearer sees wall, door frame, or other vertical expanses as curving in or out. BO; BI
_________ is a condition in which the eyes have different refractive errors anisometropia
_________ is a condition in which the eyes have the same refractive error or no error at all isometropia
________ is a condition in which the prescriptions have different signs. antimetropia
_______ _______ is ground on lens that has the weakest plus or strongest minus power on the vertical meridian, ground/molded on the CX surface of the lens on a glass lens, and ground on the CC surface of the lens of a plastic lens. slab-off
________ ________ ___ is molded on CX side of plastic lenses and on the lens with the strongest plus or weakest minus power on the vertical meridian. reverse slab-off
The total power of the eye is approximately_________ diopters 60.00
Any bundle of rays passing through a converging lens is made ____ ________ more converging
The ray that can pass through a lens without being refracted is called __ ___ ____ the axial ray
a ray entering a less dense medium, striking the interface at an angle greater than the critical angle will be _____ _______ ________. totally reflected internally
Which type of lens has a BC chosen to reduce peripheral power errors? Corrected curve lens
The tendency of an eye to deviate from its normal position is called phoria
Crossed lines have a scissors movement when lens is rotated is a characteristic of a __________ cylinder lens plus
Nearsighted myopia
In the eye, the fovea centralis is the same as the _______. macula
The BC of any multifocal lens is found on the surface containing the _________. segment
The velocity of light is least in: a. air b. polycarbonate c. water d. flint glass d. flint glass
The optical center of a lens is: a. at the geometrical center b. on the 180 line c. at the point where the A and B measurements meet d. a lens location of 0 deviation of the optical axis d. a lens location of 0 deviation of the optical axis
The reflection of light from a surface is most influenced by the __________ of the surface. Regularity
The higher the index of refraction, the ___________ the lens. thinner
What is the purpose of coating a lens by depositing a metallic film such as magnesium fluoride on the surface of a finished lens? It reduces reflections
What is the standard distance between the segs in fused double multifocals in most cases? 13-14 mm
Which surface is cast in molds? aspheric
What causes photochromic glass to darken when exposed to UV light? silver halides
When selecting a frame for a PAL, lenses with an external nasal sweep, the dispenser must be aware if the patient has a ________ PD, a loss of reading depth could occur. narrow
When measuring the seg height for a PAL, you should measure from the ________ of the pupil to the _______ portion of the eyewire. Center; lowest
Temple measurement is most often stated in mm
How must the pad arms be tilted to increase the distance between the nosepads? Outward
___________ face form is when the bridge of the frame is out further than the top positive
__________ face form is when the bridge of the frame is in closer than the endpieces negative
_________ temples is an expression referring to curving temples around the head bowing
A _____________ frame commonly has a metal chassis and plastic top rims combination
A ___________ frame has 2 holes per lens and a metal reinforcing arm that follows the upper posterior surface of the lens semirimless
A ___________ frame holds lenses in place only at the nasal edge numont
____________ are made especially for those needing a reading correction, but no distance correction Half-eyes
A __________ frame secures the lenses in place with clips attached to a bar of tensile steel that fits into a slot on each side of the lenses. balgrip
A________ _______ frame secures lenses in place by means of a small string that goes around the lenses nylon cord
__________ _____________ is a frame material that is generally made into sheets and milled to make frames cellulose acetate
___________ is a frame material that starts out with granules that are heated until becoming liquid, then injection molded into the desired frame shape propionate
___________ is a nylon-based material that can be made translucent, not just opaque polyamide
__________ is a material made from a liquid resin and a hardener that are mixed together and drawn into the frame molds using a vacuum process optyl
___________ ___________ is often used for temples because of its strength and flexibility stainless steel
__________ is extremely light in weight and will not rust and can be made thin. titanium
___________ is lightweight and can be finished in a variety of colors. aluminum
A synonym for nickel silver German Silver
_________ ________ is whitish in color, pliable, resists corrosion, and accepts a high polish monel metal
When choosing a frame for individuals with behind-the-ear hearing aids, the best temple design is one that is ______ and conforms to the ____ of the crotch of the ear. thin; back
__________ __________ resists corrosion, malleable, and accepts color well pure nickel
______ __________ _______ is a combo of titanium and nickel shape memory alloy
_________ ___________ _________ is when all major components are atleast 90 % titanium by weight and no nickel certified 100 % titanium
_______ _______ _________ is when all major components are at least 70 % titanium by weight with no nickel certified beta titanium
_______ face shapes may wear any type of frame oval
Which face shape is suggested to have a deep frame with low temple attachments? Oblong
What face shape is suggested for a narrow frame with high temple attachments? Round or square
What face shape is suggested to fit the size to the largest part of the lower facial area and dark colors or a bolder look? BD triangular shaped face
What face shape is suggested to use an unobtrusive metal or rimless frame, light or medium weight, lighter colors, rounded lens shape, and delicate characteristics of frame for women? Inverted shaped face (diamond)
A PAL lens wearer needs frame with a ______ vd, an adequate _______ tilt, and sufficient verticle depth in the ______ portion of the frame shape. minimal; pantoscopic; nasal
no face form is needed if PD______Eye size+bridge size =
positive face form is needed if PD_____ Eye size + bridge size <
negative face form is needed if PD____ Eye size + bridge size >
no pantoscopic tilt is needed if the eyes are ____ the OC at
Pantoscopic tilt is required if the eyes are ______ the OC above
retroscopic tilt is required if the eyes are _____ the OC below
If a person has their head back, the seg should be _______. If their head is down, the seg should be set____________. If a person is tall, the seg should be set____________. lowered; higher; lower
If segs seem too _______, you can: 1. increase panto tilt 2. decrease vd 3. spread pads 4. move pads up by adjusting pad arms 5. stretch bridge (plastic frame) high
If segs seem too_______, this can be done: 1.narrow pads 2. bend pads down by adjusting pad arms 3. increase vd 4. reduce panto tilt 5. shrink bridge (plastic lenses) low
for every 1 diopter in the depth of the BC increases the depth of the vd by approximately ____________ mm. 0.6
Round bifocals need to be positioned about ______ higher than FT bifocals because the upper area is less useful. 1 mm
What should be done if patient complains that seg height is always in the way? seg should be lowered
What should be done if patient complains of stiffness in the neck caused by constant head-tilting due to a bifocal? seg should be raised
If a certain eye size isn't available in a frame, when eye size is increased by 2mm across the A dimension, how many mms of lens material is effectively added to the outside edge in every direction? 1
What is a semifinished lens blank? Only 1 side of the lens is finished (usually front) and back side needs to be ground and polished to the correct power
__________ ________ is the point on a lens surface around which the lens is cut and edged mechanical center
A ___________ is normally used to enlarge a temple hinge screw thread. tap
The lensmeter is designed to measure the _______ _____ of a lens focal power
Which of the following tools can be used to determine the vd for a high plus aphakic spectacle wearer? a. seg measurer b. corneal reflex pupilometer c. lensmeter d. retroscopic angle gauge b. corneal reflex pupilometer
ANSI states that a corrective lens used in safety glasses to be not less than __________ mm thick in plus meridians, except if they are > +3.00, then they can't be thinner than ____ mm. 3; 2.5
What measuring device is used to accurately measure A and B measurements of a finished lens pattern? Box-o-graph
To best check for accuracy of edger axis, if is recommended to use a ___________ shaped lens. square
For a high minus lens, how far back from the front lens surface should the bevel apex be placed? 1/3
When using a lensmeter, a bifocal ADD should be read with the ______ _______ of the lens against the lens stop front side
The distance power of a progressive lens should be measured with the lensmeter at the ______ ________ ______ distance reference point
If salt from a salt pan sticks to the frame, what may be done to alleviate the problem? add talcum powder to the salt
What is another word for standard alignment? truing
How many steps are there in standard alignment 6
The 1st step for putting a pair of frames in standard alignment is __________ alignment. horizontal
__-____ _______ (vertical alignment) is the 2nd step in standard alignment. 4-pt touch
____ _______ alignment is the 3rd step of standard alignment open temple
_______ ___________ (flat surface touch test) is the 4th step of standard alignment temple parallelism
alignment of _______-_________ portions of the temple is the 5th step of standard alignment bent-down
__________-_____ ________ is the 6th step of standard alignment temple-fold angle
When the frame front is tested for 4-point touch, but only touches on the 2 temporal eyewires, the frame has ___ ______. face form
A situation where the frame front is somewhat twisted, with the planes of the 2 lenses being out of line with another is called: x-ing
A ________ _________ is an error in standard alignment where, when viewed from the front, one lens appears to be somewhat higher than the other. skewed bridge
A frame is out of ______________ alignment when one lens is farther forward than the other. coplanar
How many layers does the cornea consist of? 5
1st layer of the cornea epithelium
2nd layer of the cornea Bowman's membrane
3rd layer of the cornea The stroma
4th layer of the cornea Descemet's membrane
5th layer of the cornea Endothelium
The ______ is where the cornea blends into the sclera limbus
The ______ _______ is the 1st refractive surface of the eye. tear film
How many extrinsic muscles are there in the eye? 6
______ is a tendency of the visual axis to deviate inward while the eyes are in a position of rest esophoria
_____ is when the eye is turned in either constantly or intermittently inward toward the nose esotropia
_____ is a tendency of the visual axis to deviate outward while the eyes are in a position of rest. exophoria
_______ is when the eye is turned out either constantly or intermittently toward the ear. exotropia
________ is the inflammation of the eyelid margins blepharitis
________ is a blockage or inflammation of a meibomian gland chalazion
_________ is an infection of a zeis gland hordeolum
________ is the outward turning of the eyelids ectropion
_________is incomplete eyelid closure lagophthalmos
__________is the inward turning of the eyelashes trichiasis
________is a small, flat pigmented, benign tumor nevus
_____ __________ __________ is almost always related to soiled soft contact lenses that are identified by large bumps, called "papillae" giant papillary conjunctivitis
A ___________ is a small, rounded, yellowish benign tumor pingecula
A __________ is a wedge-shaped overgrowth on the medial bulbar conjunctiva pterygium
A ____________ ____________ is a blood from a broken vessel that is trapped under the conjunctiva subconjunctival hemmorrhage
A _______________ is a viral infection affecting the conjunctiva, producing severe scarring of the lids and eventually affecting the cornea. trachoma
_____ ___________ is when endothelium cells in the cornea undergoes degenerative changes Fuch's dystrophy
___________ is a thin membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera conjunctiva
__________ aberration produces a shorter focal length for rays near the edge of the lens than rays near the optical axis. spherical
Where is the optical center found on a round segment? at the geometric center
________ is the breaking up of white light into its component colors dispersion
The reflection of light from a surface is most influenced by the regularity of the surface
Any bundle of rays passing through a converging lens is made more converging
An advantage of lenses ground in minus cylinder form versus those ground in plus cylinder form is _______ _______ _____ for better glazing. flatter front curves
corrected curve lenses have ____ oblique astigmatism. less
The sagittal depth of a curve varies with its dioptric value and its __________. diameter
The patient that is most likely to find flaws in the frame or lenses when inspecting them without wearing visual correction is a _______ myope. strong
Loss of vision without any apparent defect of the eye is called amblyopia
Image is always increased if you ________ the front curve increase
The near point for both a hyperope and a myope is in front of the _________. cornea
The power of a bifocal ADD is the difference between the front vertex measurement of __________ and ____. distance; near
Vd compensation for spectacle lenses is most needed for prescriptions that begin at +/- 7.00 D
Holding frame front and bending the temples is an example of how you can ___________ pantoscopic tilt from the temples. decrease
A type of frame mounting that holds the lenses in place by some method other than eyewires or nylon cords is a: a. rimless mounting b. semi-rimless mounting c. numont mounting d. all of the above d. all of the above
Of the frame characteristics listed below, which is the least desirable to children? a. deeply grooved frame fronts b. nylon cord frame construction c. bridges that give support in the area of the lower portion of the nosepad d. spring temples b. nylon cord frame construction
What is the frame difference? A-B
When a person has dark irises or unequally sized pupils, to measure the binocular interpupillary distance you may measure from _________ limbus to ________ limbus. inner; outer
The difference between measuring the distance and near PD's using a ruler is the dispenser does not _________ ______ when sighting the wearer's eyes. change eyes
If front surface of the nosepads or bridge of plastic frame cut into the nose and back surface does not touch the nose then the _____ angle of the bridge is incorrect. splay
When fitting a child, the distance from the inner edge of the nosepad to the child's canthus should be at least equal to ____ mm. 10
The most consistent reference point for measuring traditional bifocal heights is the ______ ______. lower limbus
A __________ would be used to check for strain in a lens. colmascope
If the glasses seem to slide off the wearer's nose but the fit behind the ears and on the nose look correct, you can ________ the temples _______ a little bit. spread; apart
When adjusting a library temple, the temple should touch the side of the head at the ___ of the ear to the ___ of the temple behind the ear top; tip
When adjusting a skull temple, the temple should touch the side of the head at the ___ of the ear and continue to the ___ (end) of the temple behind the ear. top; tip
A characteristic most single vision CR-39 lens series have in common is _________ _______ ____. minus cylinder form
What is the average reading distance? 14-16 inches
The _________ bridge on a plastic frame supports the weight entirely on the pads. keyhole
All of the following are methods of determining the monocular segment height for a progressive addition lens, except a. corneal reflex pupilometer b. plastic mm ruler c. marking fitting tape d. corneal relfection fitting tape method a. corneal reflex pupilometer
A lens has a thickness of _______ the wavelength of incoming light when antireflective coating is applied to the lens. 1/4
Aphakic patients wearing strong cataract lenses would find which of the following fitting techniques most beneficial? a. negative face form b. a short vd c. above average pantoscopic tilt d. retroscopic angle b. a short vd
As the pantoscopic angle is increased, the OC's should be ________ lowered
By _________ the pad arms further ______ from the bridge can lower the front when adjusting the frame. spreading; apart
If you flare pads _____ more, it relieves excessive pressure causing soreness at the back edge of the nose pads. out
If the pad arms are bent up and the pads realigned, this adjustment will _____ the front. drop
Bending the right temple downward will __________ the right side of the frame raise
Angling the right temple outward will bring the right side of the frame ________ to the face closer
To relieve tension on both ears, a good adjustment would be to ________ temple length-to-bend increase
_______ _________ pliers are best used for adjustment of rocking pad arms. half-round
_2.00D is apt to blur a young emmetrope who is viewing a distant object. +
vertex __ mm, pantoscopic tilt 12-15 degrees, ______ face form adjustment when fitting a patient with a PAL for optimum performance. 12; slight
To perform a Drop Ball Test for dress safety lenses a 5/8 inch steel ball weighing ________ is dropped 50 inches onto the surface of the lens. 6/10 ounce
In pediatric fitting, correct _______ angle is achieved by matching the nose pad angle to the angles created by the sides of the nose where each pad rests. splay
over-the-ear hearing aids are most comfortable when _________ ______ _______are used. comfort cable temples
inset is ________ the distance between the distance and near PD half
The intermediate portion of a trifocal is designed to produce clear images about ________ inches away. 30
On a PAL the prismatic effect is verified at the dot directly below the ______ ______. fitting cross
A _____ bifocal allows easy and natural use by most children. A wide segment, usually ______ mm is recommended. FT; 35
The bifocal height is = to _____ the B measurement. 1/2
The average convergence distance in children is _____ mm 2
The average convergence distance in adults is ______ mm 3
The minimum fitting height for most PAL's is ______ mm. 22
________ is a thermoplastic frame material that is molded instead of stamped out, and therefore returns to its original shape when heated. optyl
______ is a nylon-based spectacle frame material that is very strong, very lightweight, translucent, hypoallergenic, and can be made very thin. polyamide
_______ is the most common metal used for spectacle frames, composed mainly of nickel, with the second largest component of copper. monel
_______ ________ is a frame material that is made from iron and chrome, is highly resistant to corrosion, and has an element of flexibility that makes it well suited for temples. stainless steel
A ___________ bridge may help to lengthen a short nose. keyhole
The ______ angle of the bridge is incorrect if the frame bridge rests entirely on top of the nose and does not contact the sides of the nose. frontal
The ______ angle of the bridge is the angle observed from the side (which should parallel the angle of the nose to the facial plane) when adjusting a saddle or contoured bridge. crest
The ______ angle of the bridge is incorrect if the front surface of the nose pads or the bridge of the plastic frame cut into the nose and the back surface does not touch the nose. splay
When positioning adjustable pads on the nose, the pads should appear to be _____ when observed from the side. vertical
Once the pads have been adjusted to the surface of the nose, they should rest ______ on the nose, therefore distributing the weight of the frame evenly. uniformly
The _____ bridge is best used with wide, flat bridges. saddle
Polishing the edges of a high minus lens should be accompanied with ______ _________ to decrease internal reflections AR coating
The MRP height must be measured for ______ ______ and _______ lenses. high index; polycarbonate
If a child's bridge is extremely flat and perfect weight distribution cannot be gained by adjusting the pad arms, the dispenser should increase the ______ _______ of the frame slightly retroscopic angle
When adjusting nose pads on a child, _____ pad flare is usually needed. more
When measuring for trifocal height, a full ______ is subtracted to allow for pupil clearance of the intermediate seg in distance viewing mm
A very short person should have the seg placed in the ______ position normal
High minus lenses worn in a frame that is too large makes the head look ______ behind the lenses compared with the rest of the face. narrow
A ___ _____ is an instrument designed to measure the sagittal height and depth of the lens curve and usually calibrated to express the measurement in dioptric tool surface power. lens clock
When compressing the barrels together somewhat to help tighten a loose temple, it is best done with pliers whose jaws are ____ when open. parallel
A _____ _____ distributes the weight of the frame over the nose pad area and the crest of the nose. strap bridge
In a PAL, the "progressive zone" is also known as the corridor
To reduce oblique astigmatism as the wearer looks down through the lens, the seg height of a high plus lens should be as ____ as possible high
If the glasses seem to slide off the wearer's nose but the fit behind the ears and on the nose look correct spread the temples _____ a little bit apart
Which of the following areas is NOT a factor in determining vertical imbalance? a. reading depth b. sphere power in the 90 degree meridian c. cylinder power in the 90 degree meridian d. ADD power d. ADD power
How much cylinder power does a lens have at 90 degrees away? 100%
How much cylinder power does a lens have at 60 degrees away? 75%
How much cylinder power does a lens have at 45 degrees away? 50%
How much cylinder does a lens have at 30 degrees away? 25%
How much power does a lens have at 0 degrees away? 0%
A 4x microscope lens has a dioptric value of about 16.00D
When using a lensmeter, a standard fused bifocal lens has how many measurable optical centers? 2
Does a seg get lowered or raised if the seg height is less than half the B? lowered
Using the boxing system, the pattern always rotates around the _________ __________ for the lens reference point mechanical center
The BC of a _______ is the curve on the lens from which all of the other curves will be calculated. lens
The BC of a _____________ lens is the curve on the surface containing the segment. multifocal
The BC of a ______ surface is the flattest curve on the surface. toric
Who mandates impact resistance for dress ophthalmic lenses? FDA
Who prevents unfair business practices, such as deceptive advertising and monopolies? FTC
Who mandates basic impact and high impact resistance for safety lenses and frames? ANSI
Who develops standards for testing and materials? ASTM
Which federal law sets standards to collect, dispose of, transfer, and release personal information? HIPAA
Which federal agency is charged with regulating safety practices in the workplace and in educational settings? OSHA
The ______ _ _____ is when the dispenser informs the patient about the availability of eyewear alternatives that provide optimal eye safety in the particular wearing conditions applicable for that individual. duty to inform
________ ________ is when the product was not up to accepted standards depending on type of eyewear. Product liability
_________ is when the defendant practitioner did not conform to the standard care. negligence
What does FDA stand for? Food and Drug Administration
What does the FTC stand for? Federal Trade Commission
What does ANSI stand for? American National Standards Institute
What does the ASTM stand for? American Standards for Testing and Materials
What does HiPAA stand for? the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
What does OSHA stand for? Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What are the 3 general categories for eyewear? dress, safety, and sport
The FDA requires that records be kept for ___ years after the purchase of eyeglasses. 3
True or False? A -2.50D high index glass lens is heavier than a crown glass lens of equal thickness and power. True
True or False? A high-index plastic lens is heavier than a lower index crown glass lens. False
The purpose of blowing air against both sides of a glass lens after heating the lens in a thermal-hardening unit is to create stress within the lens and increase ___________ __________. impact resistance
True or False? Eyeglasses II no longer lists minimal information needed for a spectacle lens prescription as was found in Eyeglasses I. True
A ____________ is the instrument used to check to see if a glass lens has been heat treated. Polariscope
True or False? Listing a lens material as part of an eyeglass prescription is inappropriate. False
True or False? Because the laboratory takes full responsibility for the accuracy of safety and sports prescription eyewear, verification of lens thickness by the dispenser is unnecessary. False
The correct ophthalmic terminology for eyewear that is used for everyday and not for sports or safety is dress eyewear
What are the minimum thickness requirements mandated by the FDA for dress eyewear? There are no minimum thickness requirements.
When may retailers dispense prescription lenses that are not impact resistant? when no other types of impact-resistant lenses will fulfill the visual requirements of the wearer
The standard "referee test" for determining impact resistance that is suitable for dress ophthalmic lenses is a _____ inch steel ball dropped on the front surface the lens from a height of _____ inches 5/8; 50
True or False? Plano sunglasses manufactured in quantity do not have to be impact resistant. False
A wearer breaks his frames. You find a new frame, but the old chemically tempered glass lenses are too large. The lenses can be ___________, but must be chemtempered again and drop-ball tested again before being put into the new frame. re-edged
The "duty to inform" someone of the safest options for their eyewear needs is a ________________ responsibility. professional
The basic safety eyewear minimum thickness are ______ mm (except +3.00 D and above, which have a minimum thickness of __ mm. 3.0; 2.5
The high impact safety eyewear minimum thickness is ____ mm. 2.0
The standard "referee test" for determining impact resistance suitable for basic impact prescription safety lenses is a ___ inch steel ball dropped on the front surface of the lens from a height of ____ inches. 1; 50
A safety frame suitable for high impact safety lenses must be marked size, manufacturer, and _______ on the front and the temples Z87-2
True or False? Putting a 2.0-mm thick CR-39 lenses in a safety frame, but not marking the lenses for safety, is acceptable if the person just wants the glasses for regular wear. False
True or False? Putting a 2.0-mm thick polycarbonate lenses in a safety frame, but not marking the lenses for safety, is acceptable if the person just wants the glasses for regular wear. False
True or False? A lens may be identified as having been chemically tempered by placing it in a colmascope. (A colmascope consists of 2 crossed polarized filters that are back lighted.) False
The total power of the cornea is _____ D +43.00
The total power of the crystalline lens is _______ D +17.00
The eye is made up of ___ layers 3
The 3 layers of the eye are: the fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, and the neural (nervous) tunic
The (outer) fibrous tunic layer of the eye consists of: sclera and cornea
The (middle) vascular tunic layer of the eye consists of the choroid, iris, and ciliary body
What is the purpose for the vascular tunic? nourishment
The (inner) neural layer of the eye consists of the retina
What are the 3 chambers in the globe? anterior, posterior, and vitreous
The ______ is the opaque white of the eye and the outer protective layer, and provides the structure of the entire eye. sclera
The ______ is the middle layer. It's vascular and is a network of blood vessels. It surrounds the retina and provides it with nutrients. choroid
The anterior and posterior chamber both include _________ _______ . aqueous humor
The ____ _____ is where the aqueous humor is produced. ciliary body
The ________ ________ is the largest space. vitreous chamber
The vitreous chamber is where a gel substance called _______ _______ is contained. vitreous humor
The _______ is transparent, which allows light to enter the eye. cornea
The cornea is __________ (without blood vessels) avascular
The __________ is the 1st layer of the cornea, that regenerates every 24 hours. epithelium
The epithelium is ______ layers thick 5-7
The _____ ______ is the 2nd layer of the cornea, and is a protective transition layer. Bowman's Membrane
The ______ is the 3rd layer and the thickest(90%) in the cornea. stroma
The ________ __________ is the 4th layer in the cornea, and seperates the stroma from the endothelium. Descemet's Membrane
The _______ is the 5th layer/ inner layer of the cornea. endothelium
The endothelium is responsible for __________, which is where the water content of the cornea is controlled by a dynamic process of pumping and leaking. deturgescence.
There are _________ rods in the retina 120 million
There are ______ cones in the retina 6 million
______ are used in night vision and peripheral vision rods
____ are used in color vision and central vision cones
There are __ extrinsic muscles that attach to the sclera and control movement of the globe 6
The __________ _________ rotates the eye upward superior rectus
The ________ _________ rotates the eye downward inferior rectus
The ______ _______ rotates the eye outward lateral rectus
The ______ ________ rotates the eye inward medial rectus
The ________ ________ rotates the eye down and out superior oblique
The ________ ________ rotates the eye up and out inferior oblique
In ___________ the ocular image from one eye differs in size from the other eye so that the images can't fuse together aniseikonia
________ is the opacity of the crystalline lens cataract
_________ _________ are used to manipulate image size when fusion is difficult iseikonic lenses
__________ is the failure of both eyes to simultaneously direct their gaze ; a muscle imbalance strabismus
__________ is when the ability to accommodate for near vision becomes inadequate because the loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens presbyopia
___________ is night vision scotopic
__________ is day vision photopic
____________ is the ability to use both eyes as a team and be able to turn the eyes toward a far object divergence
__________ (therapeutic) prism is placed in front of an eye with a weak or paralyzed muscle to displace the image in the same direction that the eye turns. relieving
_________(exercising) prism is placed with the apex over the weak muscle to make it work harder. adverse
______ tint is used for unfavorable light situations, such as fluorescent lighting or glare in work area pink
__________ tint is used for competitive shooting yellow
______ tint has some of the same qualities as a yellow lens in that there is a higher absorption or shorter visible wavelengths. This and gray tint are most popular tint choices brown
______ tint has a transmission curve that closely approximates the color sensitivity curve for the human eye. green
_____ tint is most popular for sun protection gray
________ ________ is the method of choice for hardening of photochromic lenses. chemical tempering
_______ ___________ is when heat bleaches a photochromic lens. heat bleaching
There are __ different types of UV radiation 3
What are the 3 types of UV radiation? A, B, and C
UV-_____ may cause sunburn or cataracts, and is between 315 and 380 nm. (Least harmful)-mostly absorbed by crystalline lens A
UV-____ causes sunburn, corneal burn, retinal damage and cataracts, over time. Is between 290-315 nm. It is mainly absorbed by the cornea and partly by the lens B
UV-____ Extremely dangerous!!! Absorbed by ozone layer in our atmosphere. Welder's torch can emit this. It can cause cataracts, snow blindness, macular degeneration, welder's burn, pterygium, or pingecula. It is between 200 and 290 nm. C
An uncoated normal plastic lens will reflect approximately ______% of light. 8
A box-o-graph is used to measure lenses for _____ size
_________ is a tendency of the eye to turn upward. It may be constant or occur only when tired or stressed. hyperphoria
________ is a tendency of the eye to turn downward. hypophoria
When the path of light is drawn through a lens, the primary focal point of a converging lens is to the left of the lens
When rays diverge on leaving a lens, the image of the object is a virtual image
On a converging meniscus lens, the ______ vertex is always stronger than the ______ vertex power. back; front
When wearing strong plus lenses, the wearer is experiencing _______ vertex power back
When a high minus powered lens is moved closer to the eye, the compensated power must be ________. decreased
A __________ image is an image in which no light rays pass through the image. virtual
When glasses are placed in the lensmeter in the normal position, with the back or concave surface toward the lens stop and the front or convex surface toward the optician, the lensmeter reading will give the ______ vertex power. back
In a minus lens, the object is displaced ______ the optical center toward
Ina plus lens, the object is displaced ______ _____ the optical center away from
________ is visual discomfort regardless of cause. asthenopia
_______ muscle is what opens the iris to let more light in dilator
______ muscle is what closes the iris sphincter
How many layers are there in the tear film? 3
The outermost tear film layer is the _____ layer, which prevents evaporation and provides lubrication for smooth eyelid movement. It is produced by the meibomian glands. lipid
The middle layer of the tear film is the ________ layer, and it contains 98 % water, is the thickest layer, and is secreted by the lacrimal glands. aqueous
The inner layer of the tear film is the ______ layer, and it is produced and secreted by the conjunctival goblet cells. mucous
How many layers are there in the conjunctiva? 3
the __________ conjunctiva lines the eyelids palpebral
the _________ conjunctiva covers the sclera bulbar
the conjunctival _________ connects the palpebral and the bulbar fornix
inward turning of the eyelid entropion
The _______ test (tear break up time) tests the quality of tears TBUT
The _______ test tests the quantity of tears schirmer
Visible light ranges from 380-750 nm
__________ shows that waves diverge from their source divergence
_________ lines are lines that spread apart as if originating from a point divergent
_______ lines are lines that come together to meet at a point (then diverge again as they continue their path) convergent
______: a path of a single photon of light from a single point on a light source rays
______: a group of rays divergent from a single point on a light source pencils
________: a beam of light is composed of a group of pencils beams
_______: a particle of light. It will travel in a straight line unless it changes speed or passes a barrier photon
_________ lenses are what glass lenses are often referred to. mineral
_______ lenses are what plastic lenses are often referred to. organic
the higher the _________ number, the lower the dispersive value, and LESS chromatic aberration of the lens. Abbe'
As light strikes the single layer coated lens surface, some of the light will reflect from the coating surface and some from the lens surface. This causes the two reflected waves of light to out of phase with each other, causing _________ interference an destructive
AR will adhere to a lens better if the lens has a high-quality _______ ______ coating anti-scratch
When a plastic lens has an AR coating, the impact resistance normally __________. decreases
A backside AR coating allows the majority of the light coming in from behind the wearer to pass on through the lens without being ___________ back into the eyes reflected
What must be done if a lens can't be made impact resistant for a patient? it must be recorded in the patient's record and the patient must be notified in writing
High impact lenses must pass a high velocity impact test, which means that it must be capable of withstanding a ____ inch steel ball traveling at _____ ft/sec 1/4; 150
High impact safety lenses are marked in the same manner as basic-impact lenses, except that they are to be additionally marked with a _____ symbol, not just the manufacturer's label +
The result of 3 ^ BU in the right lens and 3 ^ BD in the left lens is vertical disassociation of the eyes
A converging lens shows against motion
There is never prism present at the _____ of the lens optical center
Slab-off prism ground on glass lenses creates BU prism in the reading area
List the colors from least refracted color to the most refracted color ROYGBIV
The result of 3 ^ BI in the right lens and 3 ^ BI in the left lens is 6 ^ of divergence of the eyes
reverse slab-off is molded on the back of _________ lenses plastic
The result of 2 ^BU in the right lens and 2^ BU in the left lens is no vertical disassociation but some distortion for the wearer
When looking through a prism, the eye will rotate toward the ______ of the prism apex
The angle at the apex of a prism is sometimes called the refracting angle
The result of 2 ^ BI in the right lens and 2 ^ BO in the left lens is no horizontal disassociation but ______ distortion for the wearer some
The datum or D measurement is less than or equal to the __ measurement A
concave lenses ______ the image minifies
convex lenses _______ the image magnify
concave lenses show _________ images virtual
convex lenses show ______ images real
Created by: celticdragon86
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