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Anatomy mid-term

mid-term review

the study of the structure of individual cells is called Cytology
arrange the following list of levels of organization from the smallest level to the largest level. _tissue__cell__organ__organelle__organism__organ system 324165
the maintenance of a constant and optimal internal environment in an organism is called homeostasis
when body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. this is an example of____ negative feedback
a person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing foward is in the _____ Anatomical position
which of term is use to identify the region corresponds to the lower back? lumbar region
A cut that passes parallel through the long axis of the body and divides the body into equal left and right halves is known as a______ Midsagittal
Anatomy is to_____as Physiology is to______ Structure, Function
Advancing knowledge by forming a question, collecting data related to the query, observing and experimenting,testing answers is employing______ Scientific method
a person lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling. she is in the ______ position. Supine
The simplest chemical units of matter are Atoms
isotopes of an element differ in the number of Neutrons
the most important high energy compound in cells is______ ATP
carbohydrates,lipids, and proteins are classified as______ organic compounds
of the following choices, th PH of the least Acidic solution is 7.0 2.3 4.5 1.0 6.0 6.0
electrons have a___charge, protons have a____charge; and neutrons have a_____charge Negative,Positive,Neutral
in hydrolysis reactions, compounds react with_____causing a_____reaction. Water, decomposition
Alaska natives have a lower incidence of heart disease even though theirdiets are high in fat and cholesterol. this may be due to the large amounts of_____in their diets. Omega-3 fatty acids
Which PH is closest to neutral PH? pH6 pH5 pH4 pH3 pH2 pH6
the Term______means each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction. Specificity
the basic structural and functional unit of the human body is_____ Cells
most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the _________ Mitochondria
the cells DNA is is located in the_______ Nucleus
the complex structures of DNA and protein found in the cell nucleus are _________ Chromosomes
the triplet codes needed to produce a specific polypeptide chain are found in the ________ genes
the movement of oxygen from the area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of_________ Diffussion
Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through_______ Membrane channels in proteins
a process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called___________ Active transport
the cell membrane includes __________ Phospholipids,and glycolipids, Integral proteins
the genetically controlleed death of cells is called_____ Apoptosis
the tissue that always has a free surface exposed to the internal or external environment is ____________ epithelial tissue
epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have_______ at their free surface. Microvilli
the fibrous components of connective tissue are produced by__________ Fibroblasts
cells that store fat are called_______ Adipocytes
the most common cartilage is _________cartilage Hyaline
Osseous tissue is also called _______ Bone tissue
tissue that is specialized for contraction is______________Tissue muscle
the muscle tissue that shows no striations is ____________Muscle smooth
tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is _____________tissue neural
tissue changes with age includes: repair elasticity, and thinner epithilium
which term refers to a reversible change in the normal shape,size, and organization of tissue cells? dysplasia
cells that respond to injury or infection by dividing to produce daughter cells that differentiate into other cell types are mesenchymial cells
the red color and heat association with inflamed tissue is the result of Vasodialation
the study of shed cells for medical purposes is termed exfoliative cytology
the pap test is a procedure utilizing_________ exfoliative cytology
the three types of connective tissues include_____________ coonective tissue proper, fluid, supportive tissue
_____attaches skeletal muscles to bones, and __________connect one bone to another. Tendon, ligament
the four basic types of tissue in the body are_________________ epithilial, connective, muscle,and neural
intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of__________ cardiac muscle
examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. the cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. the tissue is most likely__________tissue epithelial
the most abundant cells in the epidermis __________ karatinocytes
the layer of the epidermis that contains cells undergoing division is the ___________ stratum germanitivum
the layer of the epidermis that contains melanocytes is the_____________ stratum germanitivum
an albino individual lacks the ability to produce___________ Melanin
the layer of skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves closest to the surface of the skin is the____________layer subcutaneous
the layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the___________ cuticle
variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by________ Melanocytes
glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are___________glands sebaceous
most body odor is the result of bacterial metabolism of the secretions produced by_______glands apocrine
the primary function of sensible perspiration is to___________ cool body temperature
sweat tastes salty because of its________ electrolites
the nail body covers the______ nail bed
nail production occurs at the nail______ root
the pale-crescent-shaped area at the base of a nail is called the______ lunula
a child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n) Abrasion
the layer of the skin that provides protection against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the________ epidermis
in anm extensive wound_________divide producing mobile cells that invade the deeper areas of the injury. fibroblasts
the repair of the dermis begins as fobroblasts produce________ collagen fibers
the effects of aging on the skin include_______ everything declines
an important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is ________ Vitamin D
___________is macrophages in the epidermis that are part of the immune system langerhan cells
when arrector pilli mucles contract____ hairs get errect, Goosebumps
the type of burn tha may require a skin graft is a________ 3rd degree burn
whe a fair skinned person blushes, why does his or her skin turn red? increased blood flow to capallaries, blood rushes to the face
if the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed ? no hair grows
wrinkles and sagging skin in elderly individuals are the result of ___________ decline of protein elastin/ collagen fibers in the skin weakening
what happens if body temperature rises above normal? blood flows is going to increase to the skin/ thermo regulation
types of skin cancers include______ Basal cell carcinoma and melanoma
cyanosis is indicated by________ bluish coloration to the skin melanoma
a suntan actually results from_______ exposure to UV rays, increased production of Melanin
skin inflammation is termed______ dermititis
when assesing a patient,you discover that after pinching the skin o the back of the hand, it remains peaked. this is a sign of______ dehydration
the dermis provides________ protection, mechanical strength, and flexibillity.
a common cause of dandruff is __________ Seborrheic dermatitis
Charlie is badly burned in an accident. when he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from charlies arm whe he gently pulls on a hair with his forceps. charlie is suffering from a(n)___burn. 3rd degree burn
the function of the skeletal system includes: Support,storage, blood cell production,leverage,
the humerous is an example of a(n)_______bone long
the sternum is an example of a(n)__________bone flat
the vertebrae are examples of__________bones irregular
the central canal of an osteom contains: bLOOD VESSELS
THE TYPE OF bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from a limited range of directions is__________bone Compact
the medullary cavity contains:______ yellow Marrow
teh shaft of a long bone is called the______ diaphysis
calcification refers to the________ deposition of calcium salts in other tissue
when production of sex hormones increases, bone growth_______ Increases
elevated levels of calcium ion i the blood stimulate the secretion of hormone_____ Calcitonin
the hormone calcitonin functions to decrease calcium ions in the blood
excess growth hprmone prior to puberty would result in_______ gigantism
a lack of exercise would decrease bone mass, brittle
when stress is applied to a bone electoral fields are going to stimulate osteoblasts
the following are steps i the process of bone repair. the correct order of these events is:__cells of the periosteum and endosteum divide equally__a fracture hematoma forms__osteoclasts and osteoblasts remodel the region of injury.__an external ca 2-1-3-4-5 look at 108 on w/s
a condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is____ osteoporosis
____fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin. closed or simple
the deposition of calcium salts in tissues other than bone is referred to as Calcification
a child with rickets would have bow legs
if a human femur is found lying in a field, a pathologists can determine the age sex, and general appearance of the individual as a result of studying which part of the bone? surface features
the femur can withstand _________times the body weight without breaking. 10-15
________bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move the bones. spongy
intra membranous ossification begins with the_______cells osteoblast
the most abundant mineral in the body is____ calcium
while on a school trip in colorado, heidi falls and breaks her femur. what would you expect to see as a part of her nursing assesment several hours after the fall? Hematoma
HOW WOULD INDREASING THE proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone? more flexible
if the rate of osteolysis exceeds osteogenesis, bones will demineralize
when the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone___ growth stops
premature closure of epiphyseal plates could be caused by sex hormone
the condition known as osteopenia inadequate ossification
Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts osteoprogenitor
immature bone cell that secrets organic components of matrix Osteoblasts
mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix Osteocytes
multinucleated cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix osteoclasts
responsible for blood cell formation red bone marrow
stores adipose tissue for an energy reserve yellow bone marrow
the functions of the integumentary system are protection, excretion, maintenance of body temp., synthesis of vitamin D, storage,
Accessory structures of the skin include hair, nails, and multicellular eccrine gland
strechmarks are due to dehydration and "extensive distension"
Scar tissue is the result of an abrasion
Stages in regeneration__ contraction occurs __ Granulation tissue is formed __ cells of the stratum germinativum divide and migrate __ a scab forms on the surface 4-3-2-1
vitamin D is necessary for to aid normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus
bill develops a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands, which causes the level of parathyroid hormone in his blood to be higher than normal. Which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition? Hypercalcemia
Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show greater then normal demineralization. after reviewing the results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. what hormone will she prescribe for her patient? Estrogen
Created by: 100000416601591