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RMT Week 1

Structure and Function of Cells, Tissues, Organs, Body Organization, Medicolegal

Plasma membrane Structure surrounding the cell (the skin of the cell), determines what enters and leaves the cell. Induces cells to stick together.Primary components are lipids and proteins.
Cytoplasm All the material that is contained within the cell membrane outside of the nucleus. Workhorse of the cell. Synthesizes proteins. Comprised of small structures = Organelles.
Endoplasmic reticulum Organelle comprised of canals or channels within the cytoplasm, works as a packaging system. With ribosomes, it metabolizes fat and builds proteins. Carries proteins from one part of cell to another.
Nucleus Control center that contains the cell’s DNA. Controls organelles in the cytoplasm. Plays a role in active transport, metabolism, growth and heredity.
Ribosome Organelle that with the endoplasmic reticulum, they metabolize fat and build proteins. Tiny, bi-lobed dark bodies. Made of proteins & RNA
Lysosome Organelle that contains enzymes that aid in digestion within the cell. Abundant in white blood cells that engulf bacteria and other harmful substances.
Mitochondrion Organelle that creates energy for the cell. It is known as the cell’s power plant. Sausage-shaped, double membrane. Forms ATP molecules which provide energy for all cellular activity.
Golgi complex/apparatus Organelle that works closely with the endoplasmic reticulum as a packaging system, distributing the newly made proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Diffusion The state or process of being widely spread. In diffusion, fluids move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, eventually resulting in equal distribution.
Phagocytosis The cell process of ingestion and digestion of solid substances such as bacteria and other cells.
Mitosis The process in which a cell reproduces.
Centrioles Paired organelles that lie close to the nucleus. Rod-shaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other. During cell division they direct the formation of the mitotic spindle.
What tissue transmits neural impulses nerve tissue
The 2 main layers of the skin are dermis and epidermis.
What structure regulates the blood pressure in the kidney juxtaglomerular apparatus
The white blood cell whose numbers increase in allergic reactions eosinophil
Combining form for common bile duct choledoch/o
Another name for adipose tissue fat
The medical term for internal organs viscera
This epithelial tissue has cube-shaped surface cells cuboidal
Name the three fibrous tissue types adipose, dense, or loose.
Which organ can regenerate itself liver
True or False The main function of the kidney is to remove toxic waste products from the blood. True
True or False Blood is about 78% water. True
This organ stores bile gallbladder
Anatomical position The erect position of the body facing forward with the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
Anterior Front or in front of, referred to as ventral.
Caudal Pertaining to the tail, hind parts, situated beneath or under, inferior.
Cephalad Toward the head, referred to as cranial.
Distal Farthest from the point of reference.
Inferior Below or directed downward. The ankles are inferior to the knees.
Lateral Refer to sides or away from the midline.
Medial Toward the middle or center, referred to as median or midline.
Posterior Back or in back of, opposite of anterior, referred to as dorsal.
Proximal Nearest to point of reference.
Superior Above, closer to the head and farther from the feet. Hips are superior to feet.
Sagittal plane Runs lengthwise from front to back, dividing the body into left and right portions.
Frontal plane Runs longitudinally through the body from side to side, dividing the body into front (anterior/ventral) and back (posterior/dorsal) parts.
Transverse plane Horizontal plane that cuts the body into upper and lower parts.
The 2 main body cavities are dorsal and ventral.
Describe adduction Moving part of the body toward the midline of the body.
Describe flexion Bending part of the body in any direction.
Describe abduction Moving part of the body away from the midline.
Describe rotation Rotating any part of the body.
Describe this position – Trendelenburg lying flat with the head lower than the legs
Describe this position – supine lying flat on the back
Describe this position – prone lying face down
Describe this position – lithotomy lying on the back with hips and knees flexed and thighs abducted and externally rotated.
Describe this position – Fowler head of bed raised, knees slightly flexed
Describe this position – lateral recumbent lying on the left side with right thigh and knee drawn up
Describe this position – knee-chest on knees with the chest resting on the bed
If the patient is having surgery on his abdomen, he would be placed on the operating table in which position? supine
True or False Remote transcriptionists are not covered by the same confidentiality rules as those who work on site. False
True or False The HIPAA privacy rule overrides state law provisions on privacy of health information. False
Covered entities and their business associates must be able to account for inappropriate disclosures for a period of at least 6 years.
AHDI and ASTM recommend that MT businesses retain information containing PHI for how long? for as long as absolutely necessary to conduct business.
True or False MT subcontractors of business associates are considered business associates. They are required to sign a business associate agreement. False
True or False Requirements for business associates do not vary, even for offshore transcription companies. True
When using a paper fax machine, which practice is NOT recommended by AHDI? a. Place fax machine in a secured area. b. Use a different color paper for printing faxes containing PHI. c. Pre-program frequently used fax numbers to avoid dialing errors. b. Use a different color paper for printing faxes containing PHI.
True or False When transferring electronic files with PHI through email, it is recommended that an MT use encryption software, batch files into one zipped file, and password protect. True
Does the HIPAA privacy rule prohibit physicians from using cell phones to dictate? No. There is nothing in the Privacy Rule specific to cell phone usage. Organizations may establish their own policies on the use of cell phones to transmit patient information.
Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule prohibit medical transcription student interns from transcribing live reports? No. The Privacy Rule allows access to protected health information for educational purposes. Students should sign confidentiality agreements and receive the same Privacy Rule training as employees.
When can a patient’s medical record be released to a third party without the patient’s written permission? With a subpoena duces tecum (defined as a court or government-agency order commanding someone to appear in court with specified documents).
Who owns the information in the medical record? The patient.
What does HIPAA stand for? Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
What does PHI stand for? Protected health information
What does ADA stand for? Americans with Disabilities Act
Centrioles Paired hollow cylinders that function in cell reproduction.
Cilia Hairlike extensions that move substances over the cell surface.
Flagella Single, longer projection of sperm cells enabling the sperm cells to move through fluids.
Nuclear envelope Two separate membranes made up of nucleoplasm. The nucleoplasm contains specialized structures—nucleolus and granules.
Nucleolus Dense region in the nucleus critical to protein formation.
Chromatin Threadlike structures made of proteins and DNA.
Chromosomes Short compact structures of tightly coiled DNA.
Cell Division For cells to reproduce the nucleus of the cell must divide resulting in the formation of 2 daughter cells.
What are the 4 main kinds of tissue composing the body’s organs? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve.
Describe epithelial cells Cells covering the body and many of the body parts.
Name 6 types of epithelial cells Simple squamous, Stratified squamous, Simple columnar, Stratified, Pseudostratified, Simple cuboidal.
Describe simple squamous Found in alveoli of lungs and lining of blood and lymphatic vessels. They are responsible for diffusion of respiratory gases between the alveoli and the blood, filtration and osmosis.
Describe stratified squamous Found in the lining of the mouth and esophagus and surface of the skin. They are responsible for protection.
Describe simple columnar Found in the lining of the stomach, intestines and parts of the respiratory tract. They function for protection, absorption and secretion.
Describe stratified Found in the bladder. They serve as protection.
Describe pseudostratified Found in the lining of the trachea and protect its surface.
Describe simple cuboidal Found in the glands and tubules of the kidneys. They play a role in secretion and absorption.
Describe connective cells The most abundant cells in the body. They can be found in skin, membranes, internal organs, muscles, bones and nerves. They function to hold organs together and give them shape as well as giving form to blood, rigid bones and cords.
Name 7 types of connective cells Areolar, Adipose, Dense fibrous, Bone, Cartilage, Blood, Hemopoietic.
Describe areolar Connects tissues and organs.
Describe adipose Found under the skin and as padding in various parts of the body. They give protection, insulation, support and act as a reservoir for nutrients.
Describe dense fibrous Found in tendons, ligaments, fascia and scar tissue creating a strong, flexible connection.
Describe bone Found in the bones of the body. They give support and protection.
Describe cartilage Found covering the articular surfaces of various structure, the rings in the trachea, the bronchi and parts of the nasal septum and give flexible, firm support.
Describe blood Compose the blood vessels and aid in transportation.
Describe hemopoietic Found in the red bone marrow and function in the formation of blood cells.
Describe muscle cells The cells that compose the muscle tissue are the “movement specialists” of the body and have the highest amount of contractility.
Name 3 types of muscle cells Voluntary, Involuntary, Cardiac
Describe voluntary Found in the arms and legs and parts of the body where movement is under conscious control. This tissue is mostly skeletal.
Describe involuntary Found in the heart, digestive system and other organs and cannot be controlled by conscious control.
Describe cardiac A highly specialized form of an involuntary muscle which forms the walls of the heart and causes the regular contractions of the heart.
Describe nerve cells Provides rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions.
Describe viscera Structures that are formed by the various kinds of tissue. In the stomach, you will find muscle tissue, nerve tissue and glandular epithelial tissue.
Define body systems Body systems are formed when a group of organs work together to perform complex functions.
Name the 11 body systems Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive.
Describe Integumentary Skin, hair, nails, sense receptors, sweat glands and oil glands.
Describe Skeletal Bones and joints.
Describe Muscular All muscles of the body.
Describe Nervous Brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Describe Endocrine Pituitary, pineal, thyroid and parathyroid glands, hypothalamus, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries and testes.
Describe Cardiovascular Heart and blood vessels.
Describe Lymphatic Lymph nodes and vessels, thymus, spleen and tonsils.
Describe Respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
Describe Digestive Primary organs are mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum and anal canal. Secondary organs are teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and appendix.
Describe Urinary Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
Describe Reproductive Male - testes, genital ducts, urethra, prostate, penis and scrotum. Female - ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina, vulva, breasts.
Anatomical position The body is standing with arms at the sides and palms turned forward. The head and feet are pointed forward. It is the basis for all the directional terms of the body.
Name the 2 major cavities of the body Ventral, Dorsal
Describe the Ventral cavity Contains the thoracic & pleural cavities and houses the trachea, heart, blood vessels,lungs. The abdominopelvic cavity which contains the liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small,large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs.
Describe the Dorsal cavity Contains the cranial cavity which houses the brain and the spinal cavity housing the spinal cord.
Name the 6 abdominopelvic cavity regions Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Lumbar, Umbilical, Inguinal/iliac, Hypogastric.
Describe Hypochondriac Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs and above the midline.
Describe Epigastric Uupper middle region above the stomach.
Describe Lumbar Right and left regions near the midline.
Describe Umbilical Center region near the navel.
Describe Inguinal/iliac Lower right and left regions near the groin.
Describe Hypogastric Lower middle region below the midline.
Created by: Sissygriffin



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