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AP Euro History Ch21

1. Congress of Vienna In september of 1814, the Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet with Louis XVIII and arrange a final peace settlement
2. Klemens von Metternick leader of the congress of vienna, Austrian foreign minister and prince
3. "legitimacy" the idea that after the Napoleonic wars, peace could best be reestablished in Europe by restoring legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions
4. balance of power a distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interestd of another
5. Edmund Burke and conservatism Burke maintained that society was a contract, he advised against the violent overthrow of a government by revolution
6. Joseph de Maistre and conservatism epoused the restoration of hereditary monarchy, which he regarded as a divinely sanctioned institution. Only absolute monarchy could guarantee "order in society" and avoid the chaos created by movements like the french revolution.
7. Concert of Europe a means to maintain the new status quo they had constructed
8. the congress system was called in the autumn of 2830 to deal with the outbreak of the revolution in Spain and Italy
9. Latin America revolts When the Bourbon monarchy of Spanin was toppled by Napoleon, Spanish authority in its colonial empire was weakened. The disintegration of royal power in Argentina led to the nation's independence
10. Monroe Doctrine guaranteeing the independence of the new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention in the New World
11. Greek rovolt against their Ottoman Turkish masters, the greeks were allowed to keep their language and Orthodox faith. Ottomans let Russia, France, and Britain to decide their fate, Greece became independent
12. Britain's Tories and Whigs the two political factions in parliment. Whigs recieved support from industrial middle class and tories dominated the government until 1830
13. Corn laws and the Peterloo massacre placed extraordinary high tariffs on foreign grain; The death of eleven people by government detractors during a protest meeting
14. Louis XVIII and Charles X The initiative passed to the ultraroyalists in 1824 when Louis died and was succeeded by his brother, court of Artios {Charles)
15. Carbonari nationalistic dreams ("charcoal burners")
16. Germanic confederation had little power, came to serve as Metternich's instrument to repress revolutionary movements within the German States
17. Burschenschaften student societies dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany
18. the Decembrist revolt the military leaders rebelled against the accession of Nicolas
19. Tsar Nicholas I Strengthened bothe the bureaucracy and the secret police, had a fear of revolution
20. classical economics an ideology based on the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible
21. Thomas Malthus enhanced the case against government interference in economic matters
22. David Ricardo's "iron law of wages" argued that an increase in population means more workers, more workers in turn cause wages to fall below the subsistence level
23. John Struat Mill an english pholosiher and also one of the most prominent advocates of liberalism in the nineteenth century
24. On the Subjection of Women argued that "the legal subordination of one sex to the other" was wrong
25. utopian socialism against private property and the competitive spirit of the early industrial capitalism
26. Charles Fourier's phalansteries proposed the creation of small model communities
27. Robert Owen's New Lanark he was successful in transforming a squalid factory town into a flourishing, healthy community
28. Louis Blanc and Flora Tristan offered a socialist approach to a better society; envisioned absolute equality as the only hope to free the working class and transform civilization
29. France's July Revolution of 1839 Barraceds went up in Paris as a provisional governmet led by a group of moderate, propertied liberals was hastily formed and appealed to Louis-Philippe, duke of orleans, cousin of Charles X, to become the constitional king of France.
30. parties of Movement and Resistance led by Adolphe Thiers, favored ministrial responsibility, the pursuit of an active forreign polcy, and limited expansion of the franchise
31. Reform Act of 1832 gave explicit recongition to the changes wrought in British life by the Industrial Revolution. It disfranchised 56 rotten broughs and enfranchised 42 new towns and cities and reapportioned others
32. revolutions of 1848 Scandals, graft, and corruption were rife, and the governments persistent refusal to extend the suffrage angered the disfranchised members of the middle class.
33. France's Second Republic The new constitution established a republic witha unicameral legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage, for 3 years and a resident, also for 4 years
34. Frankfurt Assembly aroused controversy by claiming to be the government for all of Germany
35. Louis Kossuth The Hungarian liberals were willing to keep the Habsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature
36. Giuseppe Mazzini and Young Italy a dedicated Italian nationalist who founded an organization (Young Italy; creation of a united Italian republic)
37. Jacksonian Democracy Suffrage had been extended to almost all white males
38. serjents, "bobbies," and schutzmannschaft a state financed police force, modeled after the London police, was established for the city of Berlin
39. London Mechanics' Institute established in Britain, is an example of the approach to the "dangerous classes"
40. Romanticism tried to balance the use of reason by stressing the importance of intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination as the source of knowing
41. Goethe's The Sarrows of Young Werther numerous novels and plays appeared whose plots revolved around young maidens tragically carried off at an early age by disease to the sarrow and sadness of their male lovers
42. Brothers Grimm collected and published local fairy tales
43. Sir walter Scott his novels became Europe's best-sellers
44. neo-gothic architecture Used by Romantics to emphasze the bizarre and unusual, es[ecially evident in horror stories
45. Nary Shelley's Frankenstein the story of a mad scientist who brings into being a humanlike monster that goes berserk
46. Perecy Bysshe Shelly and Lord Byron Both died fighting for what they believed in. Shelly was against the laws and customs that opressed him; Byron participated in a movement for greek independence
47. William Wordsworth His experience of nature was almost mystical as he claimed to receive "authentic tidings of invisible things"
48. Casper David Friedrich, J.M.W. Turner and Eugene Delacroix painted landscapes and nature, used light and color to suggest natural effects, fascinated by the exotic
49. Ludwig von Beethoven and Hecter Berlioz one of the few composers to singlehandedly transform the art of music, one of the most outstanding, one of the founders of program music
50. Chateaubriand's Genius of Christianity the "bible of romanticism" His defense of catholicism was based not on historical, theological, or even rational grounds but largely of Romantic sentiment
Created by: ambrecooper