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Chapter 12 Med Term

Digestive System

The passage of substances across and into tissues, such as the passage of digested food molecules into the intestinal cells or the passage of liquids into kidney tubules. Absorption
A musculomembranous tube, about 30 ft long, extending from the mouth to the nus and lined with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract. alimentary canal
An organic chemical compound composed of one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups. amino acids
An enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller charbohydrate molecules. amylase
The opening through which the solid wastes (feces) are eliminated from the body. anus
A water fluid containing ablumin, glucose, and elecrolyted that accumlates in the peritoneal cavity in association with certain disease conditions (such as liver disease). ascitic fluid
One of the two teeth between the molars and canines of the upper and lower jaw, the bicuspid teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food; aslo known as premolar tooth. bicuspid tooth
A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver. bile
The orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span. bilirubin
The portion of the alimentary cancel extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus bowel
Any one of the four teeth, two in each jaw, situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches; also called cuspid tooth. canine tooth
The muscular ring (sphincter) in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach; also known as the lower espshageal sphincter. cardiac sphincter
A cul-de-sac containing the first part of the large intestines. It joins the ileum, the last segment of the small intestines. cecum
Abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbaldder. cholelithiasis
a liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum. chyme
The portion of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum. colon
The duct formed by the joining of the cystic duct and hepatic duct. common bile duct
The part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line. crown
Any one of the four teeth, two in each jaw, situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches; also called cuspid tooth cuspid tooth
The first set or primary teeth; baby teeth. decidous teeth
The act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus defecation
swallowing deglutition
The chief material of teeth surrounding the pulp and situated inside of the enamel and cementum dentin
An allled health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for sick as well as healthy people. This may involve planning meals for a hospital or large organization or individualized diet counseling with patients dietitian
Theprocess of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells. This occurs in the digestive tract. digestion
A musculomembranous tube, about 30 ft long, extending from the mouth to the nus and lined with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract. digestive tract
The first portion of the small intestines. The duodenum is the shortest, widest, and most fixed portion of the small intestine - taking an almost circular course from the pyloric valve of the stomach so that its termination is close to its starting point. duodenum
To diperse a liquid into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension. emulsify
A hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of the tooth. Enamel is the hardest substance in the body. enamel
A gland that secretes its enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by the way of ducts. endocrine gland
A protein by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter enzyme
A muscular canal, about 24 cm ling, extending from the pharynx to the stomach esophagus
A gland that secrets its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel exocrine gland
Any several organic acids produced by the hydrolysis of neutral fats fatty acids
Waste or excrement from the digestive tract that is formedin the intestin and expelled through the rectum feces
A pear0shaped excretory sac lodged in a fossa on the visceral surface of the right lobe of the liver gallbladder
A medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract (including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder and the bile duct) gastroenterologist
A musculomembranous tube, about 30 ft long, extending from the mouth to the nus and lined with mucous membrane. Also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract. gastrointestinal tract
A procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube. gavage
gum tissue (singular;gingiva; plural gingivae gingivae
A hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low. glucagon
A simple sugar found in certian foods, especially fruits, and major source of energy occuring in human and animal body fluids glucose
A complex sugar (starch) that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells. It is formed from glucose and stored chiefly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in muscle cells glycogen
The conversion of simple sugar (glucose) into a complex form of sugar (starch) for the storage in the liver glycogenesis
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the the liver, releasing it back into the circulating blood in the response to a very low blood sugar level glycogenolysis
Liver cell hepatocyte
A compund consisting of hydrogen and chlorine hydrochloric acid
A distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum ileum
One of the eight front teeth, four in each dental arch, that appear as primary teeth during infancy are replaced by permanent incisors during childhood and last until old age. incisor
A naturally occurring hormaone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood. insulin
The intermediate or middle of the three portions of the small intestine, connecting proximally with the duodenum and distally with the ileum jejunum
The process of irrigating (washing out) an organ - usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach - for therapeutic purposes lavage
An enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats lipase
The largest gland of the body and one of its most complex organs liver
The lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of te small and large intestines lower GI tract
Chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva mastication
A point on the right side of the abdomen about 2/3rds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip. When tenderness exists upon McBurney's point, a physician might suspect appendicitis McBurney's point
Any of the 12 molar teeth, six in each dental arch, located posterior to the premolar teeth. The molar teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections (cusps) for crushing and grinding food molar teeth
An allied health professinal who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition nutritionist
The section of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity oropharynx
A structure that forms the roof of the mouth palate
An elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches long, located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon pancreas
A small, nipple shaped projection (such as the conoid papillae of the tongue and the papillae of the corium) that extend from the collagen fibers, the capillary blood vessels, and sometimes the nerves of the dermis. papillae
One of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear. parotid gland
The coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tractm bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureters peristalsis
A specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera. peritoneum
Inflammation of the peritoneum. peritonitis
The full set of teeth (32 teeth) that replace the deciduous or temporary teeth permanent teeth
The throat; a tubular structure about 13 cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and is situated just in front of the cervical vertebrae pharynx
Any soft spongy tissue-such as that contained within the spleen, the pulp chamber of the tooth, or the distal phalanges of the fingers and the toes pulp
A thickened muscular ring in the stomach that regulates the passage of food from the pylorus of the stomach into the duodenum phyloric sphincter
A sensation of severe pain experienced by the patient when the doctor applies deep pressure to the abdomen and releases it quickly. When this deep pressure is applied to the lower right quadrant of the abdomen at McBurney's point rebound tenderness
The portion of the large intestine, about 12 cm long, continuous with the descending sigmoid colon (just proximal to the anal canal) rectum
A ridge or fold (such as the rugae of the stomach) that presents large folds in the mucous membrane of that organ rugae
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth saliva
One of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth, thus aiding the digestive process salivary glands
The portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon on the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum sigmoid colon
A cicular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body, such as the hepatic sphincterin the muscular coat of the hepatic veins near the union with the superior vena cava sphincter
The major organ of digestion located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and divided into a body or pylorus stomach
A compound consisting of a fatty acid(oleic, palmitic, or stearic) and glycerol triglycerides
The upper part of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach upper GI tract
The small, cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middleof the posterior border of the soft palate uvula
One of the may tiny projections barely visible to the naked eye clustered over the entire mucous surface of the small intestine villi
starch amyl/o
appendix append/o
appendix appendic/o
enzyme -ase
bile bil/i
cheek bucc/o
cecum cec/o
pertaining to the abdomen celi/o
surgical puncture -centesis
lips cheil/o
bile chol/e
gallbladder cholecyst/o
yellow, tawny cirrh/o
colon col/o
colon colon/o
tooth dent/o
duodenum (first part of the small intestines) duoden/o
stretching or dilatation -ectasia
surgical removal -ectomy
to vomit -emesis
intestine enter/o
esophagus esophag/o
stomach gastr/o
gums gingiv/o
tongue gloss/o
sugar, sweet gluc/o
sugar, sweet glyc/o
liver hepat/o
presence of an abnormal condition -iasis
ileum ile/o
jejunum jejun/o
abdominal wall lapar/o
tongue lingu/o
fat lip/o
stone; calculus lith/o
mandible (lower jaw bone) mandibul/o
mouth or/o
pancreas pancreat/o
state of digestion -pepsia
to eat -phagia
pharynx pharyng/o
peritoneum peritone/o
surgical repair -plasty
anus or rectum proct/o
rectum rect/o
excessive flow or discharge -rrhagia
suturing -rrhaghy
salivary gland; saliva sial/o
sigmoid colon sigmoid/o
twitching, involuntary contraction -spasm
fat steat/o
mouth stomat/o
perforation -tresia
intentional crushing -tripsy
Achlorhydra is an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice achlorhydria
Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat anorexia
Aphagia is a condition characterised by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result or organic or psychologic causes aphagia
An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. The fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes ascites
A borborygmus is an audible abdominal sound produced by the herpactive intestinal peristalsis. Borborygmi are rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listening with a stethoscope borborygmus
Constipation is the difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools constipation
the frequent passage of loose watery stools diarrhea
A vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating. Dyspepsia involves an uncomfortable feeling of fullness, hearthburn, bloating, and nausea dyspepsia
Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus dysphagia
Excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition is emaciation emaciation
The material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; vomitus emesis
Eructation is the act of bringing up air from the stomach with the characteristic sound through the mouth; belching eructation
Flatus or flatulence is air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum flatus; flatulence
gastroesphageal reflus is a backflow of contect of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the low esophageal sphincter gastroesophageal reflux
A yello discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; also called jaundice icterus
Melena is an abnormal, black , tarry stool containing digested blood melena
An unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit nausea
Pruritus ani is common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus prurutus ani
Greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces, characterized by frothy foul smelling fecal matter that floats (as in celiac disease), some malabsorption syndromes, and any condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestines steatorrhea
To expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out the mouth vomit
Decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter achalasia
Created by: janettepalmer