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A P Saladin CH 1

vocab for chapter 1 of Saladin's Anatomy and Physiology

the study of structure anatomy
the study of function physiology
looking at the body's appearance as in performing a physical examination from surface appearance inspection
feeling a structure with the hands palpation
listening to the natural sounds made by the body, ex: heart and lung sounds auscultation
tapping on the body, to feel for abnormal resistance, and listening to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of air or fluid percussion
the careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships dissection
dead human body cadaver
the study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends comparative anatomy
opening the body and taking a look inside to see what is wrong and how to fix it exploratory surgery
methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery medical imaging
the branch of medicine concerned with imaging radiology
structure that can be seen with the naked eye gross anatomy
the study of tissue microscopic anatomy/histology
the microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease histopathology
study of the structure and function of individual cells cytology
fine detail, down to the molecular level, revealed by the electron microscope ultrastructure
the study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction the basis for the development of new drugs and medical procedures comparative physiology
-"Father of Medicine" -Greek physician (460-375 BC) -established a code of ethis for physicians, the ______ Oath -urged physicians to stop attributing disease to the activities of gods and to seek out their natural causes Hippocrates
one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology, believed disease and other natural events could either have natural causes(physici) or supernatural causes(theologi), wrote an anatomy book "Of the Parts of Animals" Aristotle
physician to the Roman gladiators, wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era, ha to guess at much of human anatomy bc he wasn't allowed to dissect humans, saw science as a method of discovery, urged to follow your own observations Claudius Galen
"Moses ben Maimon", Spanish who moved to Egypt and served the sultan as physician, also a rabbi, wrote 10 influential medical books and treatises on diseases Maimonides
Muslim, "the Galen of Islam", wrote 'the canon of medicine' Avicenna
anatomist who taught in Italy during the time when cadavers were dissected w/o preservation, broke tradition and took part in dissections, proved Galen wrong on may points, published 'De Humani Corporis Fabica' in 1543, the first atlas of anatomy Andreas Vesalius
he is "what Vesalius was to anatomy" in terms of physiology, remembered for his studies of blood circulation and his book 'De Motu Cordis'('On the Motion of the Heart') William Harvey
w/Harvey, relized that blood must circulate continuously around the body, which contradicted Galen's idea that the liver did most of the work; served as physician to the kings of England; did important work in embryology Michael Servetus
an Englishman who designed various scientific instruments and improved the compound microscope, the first to see and name cells, published the first book of microscopy 'micrografia' in 1665 Robert Hooke
Dutch textile merchant who invented a simple(single lens) microscope which magnified up to 200x, observed microorganisms in lake water, blood cells, sperm, muscle tissue and bacteria Antony van Leeuwenhoek
improved the compound microscope by adding the condenser and developing superior optics Carl Zeiss Ernst Abbe
concluded that all organisms were composed of cells Matthias Schleiden Teodor Schwann
1 organisms are made of cells 2 cell is the simplest structure and functional unit of life 3 organisms structure and all of its functions are due to the activities of its cells 4 cells only come from preexisting cells 5 cells of all species are similar cell theory
philosophers who envisioned science as a systematic enterprise with possibilities for human health and welfare, outlined a systematic way of seeking similarities, differences, and trends in nature, put science on the path to modernity Francis Bacon Rene' Decartes
certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions scientific method
a process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them inductive method
a process that begins with asking a question and formulating a hypothesis, then a deduction(if-then), after observations, the hypothesis is either proven, modified, or abondoned to formulate a new hypothesis hypothetico-deductive process
an educated speculation or possible answer to a question, should be 1 consistent with what is already known and 2 capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence hypothesis
if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong falsifiability
the number of subjects in a study sample size
comparison between treated and untreated subjects controls
effects on the subject's state of mind on his or her physiology psychosomatic symptoms
a substance with no significant physiological effect on the body placebo
information that can be independently verified by any trained person fact
a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave laws of nature
an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses theory
the most influential biologist, wrote 'on the origin of species by means of natural selection' Charles Darwin
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms evolution
the principle theory of how evolution works "survival of the fittest" natural selection
natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others. ex: climate, predators, disease, competition, and availability of food selection pressures
features of an organism's anatomy, physiology and behavior that have evolved in response to selction pressure and enable the organism to soope with the challenges of its environment adaptations
an animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem model
treetop aboreal
as with thumbs: able to cross the palm to touch the fingertips opposable
for monkeys: able to grasp branches by encircling w/thumb and finger literally: to seize prehensile
depth perception stereoscopic
the complementary theory that there are "emergent properties" of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from properties of its separate parts Holism
words composed of the first letter, or first few letters, of a series of words acronyms
terms coined from the names of people eponyms
a self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producing the corrective effects of negative feedback ex: woman in labor, fever positive feedback
the cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action (from the integrating center) effector
a mechanism that processes information from receptors, relates it to other available information, and "makes a decision" about the appropriate response integrating (control) center
a structure that senses a change in the body receptor
another name for feedback mechanisms, because they alter the original changes that triggered them components include: receptor, integrating center, and effector feedback loops
narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin vasoconstriction
the widening of the blood vessels vasodilation
-a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it, -the key mechanism for maintaining health negative feedback
average value for a given variable around which conditions fluctuate ex: temperature, blood pressure set point
balanced change, fluctuation within a limited range dynamic equilibrium
American physiologist who coined the term "homeostasis" for the tendency to maintain internal stability Walter Cannon
French physiologist who observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant, no matter external conditions Claude Bernard
a healthy, female, 22 yr, weighing 58 kg(128 lb), living at~20C, engaging in light physical activity, consuming 2000 kcal/day reference woman
a healthy, male, 22 yr, weighing 70 kg(154 lb), living at~20C, engaging in light physical activity, consuming 2800 kcal/day reference man
the production of a copy of an organism: offspring reproduction
any change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism types: -differentiation: change of cells with no specific function to ones with tasks -growth: increase in size development
the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions homeostasis
the ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli responsiveness
the separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body excretion
the process of changing, internal chemical change to provide energy from what is taken in from the environment, 2 types: anabolism(simple->complex) and catabolism(complex->simple) metabolism
Created by: 169800057



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