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Anamoty Final

PMI-VTT Anamoty 235 Final Exam

What is the ratio of formalin to soft tissue? 10:1
List the steps included in a patient's signalment? Name, age, sex, breed, color, species, owner's name
List the 4 types of body tissues Connective, epithelial, nervous, muscle
What is the ratio of formalin to bone? 20:1
List 3 types of epithelial tissue Simple Squamous, Simple Cuboidal, Simple Columnar, Stratified Squamous, Stratified Cuboidal, Pseudostratified, Columnar, Transitional, Glandular
___ relys on connective tissue to supply oxygen & nutrients, and lacks blood vessels and capillaries. Epithelial tissue
___ produces mucus Goblet cells
_____ are found only in the bladder. Transitional epithelial cells
what are 3 types of connective tissue? (not blood or bone) Cartilage, Dense, & loose
List 3 locations where simple squamous epithelial tissue can be found? Capillaries, alveoli, kidneys, Parital & Vasceral Pleura, & Parietal & Visceral Peritoneum
Connective tissue is made of what 3 elements? Fibers, cells, matrix (protein fibers embedded in fluid)
This white tissue connects skin to organs? Areola
List 3 types of dense connective tissue and where they can be found. Dense regular, dense irregular, elastic. Can be found in heart valves & bone periosteum
What is the most abundant type of cartlige found in the body? Hyaline, the weakest form
What are the 3 types of muscle? Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
Histamine & Heprin are produced by what? Mast Cells
Produced by ___________, this tough, fibrous, waterproof protein gives skin it's strengh. Keratinocytes
Found in the deepest epidermal layers, this produces melanin which is absorbed by keratinocytes. Melanocytes
This cell originates in the bone, stimulates aspects of the immune system and is specific to the epidermis. Langerhans cell
believed to aid in sensation of touch, this cell is found at the epidermal-dermal junction. Merkel cell
Sebum is composed of? Mixture of fats, cholesterol, proteins and inorganic salts.
this gland use ducts & follicles to secrete it's substances. Sebaceous glands (sweat glands)
Eccrine sweat glands use ___ to reach the surface of the skin. ducts
Apocrine sweat glands use ___ to reach the surface of the skin. hair follicle
How does Vitamin D Synthesis work? Liver and kidneys help convert UV light to calcitriol, (active form of Vit. D), which aids in the absorption of calcium.
This epithelial cell can be found in the respiratory tract Pseudostratified Columnar
Cubodial epithelial cells can be found where? Exocrine glands
This cell produces mucus and is found in the GI tract. Goblet cells
theses cells make up the skin & mucus membranes Stratified squamous
These cells line the small intestine. Simple columnar
___ connects muscle to bone? Tendons
The most prominent aponeurosis is the? Linea Alba
Site of muscle attachment that is more stable. Origin
The site of muscle attachment that undergoes the most movement during contraction. Insertion
Muscle fibers store glucose as _____ and oxygen as ______. glycogen, myoglobin
What are the two types of smooth muscle? viceral & multiunit smooth muscle
Latissimus dorsi- flexes the shoulder
Brachiocephalicus- advances the limb or draws the head laterally
Superficial pectoral- adducts and advances the limb
Brachialis- flexes the elbow
Triceps brachii- extends the elbow, the long head flexes the shoulder.
Diaphragm- separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities, main muscle of respiration.
Superficial Gluteal- abducts the limb.
Semimembranosus- Inserts into the femur & tibia.
Semitendinosus- Inserts into the tibia.
Lies above the vertebral column and supports the spine. Epaxials
Smooth muscle can be found in what locations? In the walls of hollow organs, small blood vessels, Air passageways in the lungs & iris & ciliary body of the eye.
____ creates a funnel to collect sound wave vibrations and directs them to the eardrum. Pinna (external ear)
What is the function of the middle ear? Amplify and transmit the vibrations from the eardrum.
____ contains the sensory receptors that convet mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses. inner ear
What are the 3 ossicles? Malleus, incus, stapes
Humans and pigs lack what part of the eye? Tapetum lucidum, reflective layer at the rear of the eye formed by the choroid; provides ability to have "night vision"
The location where the image is formed, sensed & converted to a nerve impulse. Retina
The transparent "window" that admits light into the eye. Cornea
The lens is held in place by what? Ciliary body
____ is the white portion of the eye? Sclera
____ is the colored ring of the eye? Iris
_____ is the opening at the center of the eye? Pupal
Rods & Cones are located where? Retina
Equalibrium is controlled by what? Vestibule & semi-circular canals
Cones are? More sensitive to color and detail
Rods are? More sensitive to light and produce a grainy image in shades of gray.
List 4 types of stimuli. Mechanical (touch, hearing, balance), thermal (hot,cold), electromagnetic (vision), chemical (taste, smell)
What are the 5 pain classifications? Superficial, Deep, Visceral, Acute, Chronic
Define proprioception A sense of body position and movement.
Sense of taste. Gustatory
The majority of taste buds are located where? On the sides of the papillae of the tongue.
Sense of smell. Olfactory sense
Sense of hearing Auditory sense
What are the parts of the external ear? Pinna, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane
What are the parts of the middle ear? Temporal bones, 3 ossicles, tympanic membrane, cochlea, air, eustachian tubeOssicles link the tympanic membrane to the cochlea
What is the eustachian/auditory tube? Connects the middle ear cavity to the pharynx, to equalize air pressure on either side of the ear drum.
Within the cochlea is the fluid-filled ____ , (containing endolymph) which is the receptor organ of hearing. organ of corti
The mechanical sense that controls balance? Equalibrium
Located medially between the eyelids and the eyeball Nictitating Membrane
The ______ produces tears, located dorsal and lateral to each eye inside the bony orbits protecting the eye. Lacrimal glands
Condition when the lower eye lid is excessiveand droops outward. Ectropion
Ectropion is common in what breeds? Bassets, Bloodhounds, Cockers, English bulldogs, & St. Bernards.
A condition when the lower eye lid droops over the lower orbital rim and inverts. Entropion
Breeds predisposed to Entropion are? Collies, Great Danes, Irish setters, Dobies, Golden retrievers, Rotties, & Weimaraners.
Name the 2 digestive enzymes found in saliva. Alamayse & lipase
Peristolisis is what funciton? the contractions used to move food down the esophagus and intestines.
List the 5 parts of the stomach in order. Cardiac sphincter, fundus, body, pylorus, pyloric sphincter
The colon, aka large intestine has 3 parts, what are they? Acending, transverse, and decending colon
G-cells secrete what? Gastrin
Parietl cells produce what enzyme Hydrochloric acid (HCL)
Cheif cells are responsibe for the production of what digestive enzyme? Pepsinogen
This digestive liquid is created in the liver and stored in the _____________? Bile, gall bladder
Which gland secretes insulin and glycogen? Pancreas
What are the 4 functional parts of the kidney (in order)? What is it called? Renal corpusle, PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT; Nephron
Ethylene Glycol toxicity is caused from? What are the minimun doses for a dog? Cat? Antifreeze; dog = 4.4-6.6mg/kg; cat = 1.4mg/kg
Diabetes Insibidus is caused by a decrease in the production of this? Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH)
Diabetes Mellitus is caused by a decrease in the production of this? Insulin
These hormones regulate the fluid levels in the body. ADH & Aldosterone
Urine specifc gravity that is close to or equal to that of water would indicate? Isothenuria
___ is a buildip of toxins in the body. Azotemia
What would you expect to see under microscope observation of a urinary test with a positive nitrate. Bacteria
List the five "C's" Critters, casts, crystals, cells, CRAP
____ casts are the most commy type seen. Granular Casts
Crystal formatin is the bladder is highly dependent on what 3 factors? pH level & diet
You immature sperm are called ____ and are produced in the _______. Grem cells, testies
Sperm mature into adults in the ____. Semi-nephrous tubules
The production of testosterone takes place in the?? Testicles
This chemical stimulates the creation of testosterone. Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
This hormone stimulates the creation of sperm. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
This gland controls the estrous cycle. Pituitary Gland
The follicle produces what hormone? Estrogen
The release of this hormone causes ovulation to occur. Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
What are the gestation periods of the dog & cat? Dog = 57-63 days; cat = 65 days
The Corups Lutem produces ____ which maintains pregnancy. Progesterone
The post-pituitary gland produces ___ when in the presence of estrogen causes uterine contractions? Oxytocin
The Anterior-pituitary gland produces ___ which controls milk produciton and maintains the CL duing pregnancy. Prolactin
List 6 major Endocrine glands. Ovaries, testies, adrenal gland, thyroid, pituitary, kidneys, pancreas
What six hormones are produced by the Anterior Pituitary Gland? LH, FSH, ACTH, GH, Prolactin, & TSH
The _______ does not secrete hormones but stores ___ & ___? Posterior Pituitary Gland; ADH & Oxytocin
The thyroid & para-thyroid glands produce what 3 hormones? T3, T4 & Calcitonin
___, _____ & ____ are produced by the Adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid, & sex hormones
List the 3 glucocorticoids. Cortisone, cortisol, & corticosterone
Aldosterone is a ____. Mineralocorticoid
The "Fight or Flight response" is controlled by ___ & ____ produced by _____. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine; Adrenal Medulla
Increased production of cortisol is an indication of what disease? Cushing's Disease
A decrease in cortisol production is an indication of what disease? Addison's Disease
What are the 4 heart chambers? Right & left Atrium, Right & left ventricle
Which vessel brings deoxygenated blood into the heart? Vena Cava
What valve seperates the right atrium & ventricle? Tricuspid valve
Which valve seperates the left atrium & left ventricle? Bicuspid valve
Which chamber receives oxygenaged blood from the lungs? Left atrium
Which vessel pumps oxygenated blood from the heart into the body? Aorta
Which valve seperates the aorta & the left ventricle? Aortic semilunar valve
The other name for the "Pace-maker" of the heart? Sinoatrial Node (SA node)
What are the 2 layers of the pericardium? Fibrous (outer) & Serious (inner)
The "Lub" sound is produced by which valve? Tricuspid & mitral valves (R & L AV)
The "Dub" sound is produced by which valve? Semi-lunar valves
The "contraction" of the cardiac muscle is? Systole (depolarization)
The period of relaxation is called? Dyastole (repolarization)
What is Cardiac output? The amount of blood that leaves the heart.
Cardiac output is determined by ____ & _____. Stroke volume & heart rate
The electrical impulse travels from the AV node,to the specialized fibers in the ventricles called ___ & the ___. the bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
Define DEPOLARIZATION: A heart muscle contraction in response to electrical stimuli.
Define REPOLARIZATION: heart muscle relaxation occurs when the electrolytes move back across the cell membrane rendering the cell ready for the next electrical impulse.
What joins vessels between arteries and veins to form an extensive network? Capillaries, allow gas and nutrient exchange
Define phonation: Voice production
___ stretch across the lumen of the larynx and vibrate as air passes over them. Vocal cords
The ___ & ____ separate the nasal passages from the mouth. Hard & soft palates
Thin, scroll-like bones that help warm and humidify inspired air. Turbinates
The larynx is supported in place by the ___. hyoid bone
The trachea is composed of ____ ___ and ___ ___ held open by ___ ___rings. fibrous tissue, smooth muscle, hyline cartilage
External respiration takes place in? The alveoli
The mediastinum contains? Heart, large lung vessels, nerves, trachea, Esophagus, Lymphatic vessels & lymph nodes
The left lung has how many lobes? 2 lobes
The right lung has how many lobes? 4 lobes (cranial, middle, caudal & accessory)
The amount of air inspired and expired in one breath Tidal Volume
The amount of volume inspired and expired in one minute. Minute Volume
Spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm accompanied by sudden closure of the glottis. Hiccups
Composed of the brain and spinal cord. Central nervous system (CNS)
Consists of cord-like nerves that link the CNS with the rest of the body. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Structurally and functionally supports and protects neurons. Glial cells
Receive stimuli, or impulses, from other neurons and conduct the stimulation to the cell body. Dendrites
Conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body toward another neuron or effecter cell. Axons
The basic functional units of the nervous system and has a high requirement for oxygen. Neurons
Nerves of the PNS that originate directly from the brain. Cranial Nerves
Nerves of the PNS that originate from the spinal cord. Spinal Nerves
The ___ is the junction between two neurons or a neuron and a target cell. synapse
List the three Catacholamines Norepinepherine, Epinepherine, Dopamine
Associated with the “fight-or-flight” reactions of the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinepherine
Released primarily from the adrenal medulla to participate in the “fight-or-flight” response. Epinepherine
Involved in autonomic functions and muscle control, Low ___ = Parkinson’s disease. dopamine
List the sections of the brain. Cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus
Responsible for higher-order behaviors (example: learning) Cerebrum
Allows the body to have coordinated movement. Cerebellum
Diencephalon houses ___ that regulates hormone production and release. pituitary gland
Interface between the nervous and endocrine systems, regulates temperature, hunger & thurst. Hypothalamus
Involved in the control of functions like swallowing, vomiting, blood pressure, & respiration. Brainstem
Separates the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue. Stops drugs from effecting the brain, but allows to work on the body. Blood-brain barrier
lymph node is divided into a ___ and a ___. cortex & medulla
Locations of palpable lymph nodes? Submandibular, Parotid, Superficial cervical, Inguinal, Popliteal
Organs of the lymphatic system? Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, GALT
What is GALT Gut-Associated Lymph Tissue, 25% of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa
These cells kill many types of tumor cells and tissue cells that have been invaded by viruses. Natural killer cells
Responsible for cell-mediated immunity and activating B-cells T-cells
Most of the lymphocytes in peripheral blood are? T-cells
Each ___ is preprogrammed to produce only one specific antibody type against one specific antigen. B-cell
___ are ultimately responsible for antibody production. B-cells
What are Kupffer cells? filter bacteria in the liver, liver specific
The liver metabolizes carbs by converting excess glucose into ___ for storage. glycogen
Glycogenolysis is under the influence of the hormone. Glucagon
____ is one of the most important alpha globulins produced by the liver. Prothrombin
What are the structures of the urinary tract? Kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra
Function of the diuresis is under the control of? antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone
erythropoietin & prostaglandins are produced by what organ? Kidneys
Osmosis- the passage of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a weaker to a stronger solution.
Diffusion- the passage of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Glucose threshold of a dog? Cat? Dogs: 180 mg/dl Cats: 240 mg/ml
___ & ___ are responsible for the majority of urine volume regulation. aldosterone & ADH
Created by: SassaVetTech



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