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Ch. 10

Urology Study of the urinary system
Nephrology Study of the kidneys or nephrons
Urination Process of urinating
Micturition Process of making urine
Voiding Process of making urine
Hydronephrosis Condition of fluid or water on the kidneys
Calculus Kidney stone
Nephrolithiasis State of having a kidney stone
Calculogenesis -Process of producing stones -Also lithogenesis
Nephropathy Disease of the kidney
Nephroptosis State of a fallen kidney
Polycystic kidney disease Pertaining to many cysts in the kidneys
Pyelonephritis Infection or inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney or nephron
Acute Renal Failure (ARF) -Now known as Acute Kidney Injury -Sudden decrease in the production of urine, due to trauma, severe blood loss, or infection
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) -Now known as Chronic Kidney disease -Gradual worsening of the kidneys that leads to the progressive damage to the kidneys caused from chronic, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or glomerulonephritis
End-stage-Renal Disease (ESRD) Irreversible stage of chronic renal failure in which there is little or no remaining kidney function
Uremia Caused due to renal failure
Cystitis Infection or inflammation of the bladder
Cystocele Hernia of the bladder
Epispadias Congenital condition in which the female urethra is in an abnormal location near the clitoris, or the male urethra is in an abnormal location on the upper surface of the shaft of the penis rather than at the tip
Hypospadias When the male urethra is on the underside of the shaft of the penis
Urethritis Infection or inflammation of the urethra
Anuria Condition of without (being able to produce) urine
Bacteriuria Condition of bacteria in the urine
Dysuria Condition of painful urination
Enuresis Process (that causes a patient to) urinate (involuntarily); involuntary release of urine in an otherwise normal person who should have bladder control. Bedwetting
Glycosuria Condition of glucose in the urine
Hematuria Condition of blood in the urine
Hypokalemia Condition of deficient amounts of potassium in the blood
Incontinence State of not being able to hold together (urine in the bladder); inability to voluntarily keep urine in the bladder
Nocturia Increased frequency and urgency of urination during the night
Oliguria Condition of scanty (amounts) of urine (produced)
Polyuria -Sign of diabetes -Condition of (production) of much urine (produced)
Pyuria -Indication of Urinary Tract Infection -Condition of pus in the urine
Urinary tract infection (UTI) Bacterial infection somewhere in the urinary tract
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Test that measures the amount of urea in the blood
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) Test that puts urine onto a culture medium in a Petri dish to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection
Urinalysis (UA) -Known as a dipstick test -Test that describes the urine and detects substances in it
Intravenous Pyelography (IVP) Process that uses x-rays and radiopaque contrast dye within the vein to record the renal pelvis
Pyelogram Picture or record of the renal pelvis
Urography Process of recording the urinary system
Nephrotomography Process of recording a layer of the kidney or nephron
Ultrasonography Procedure that uses ultra high-frequency sound waves emitted by a transducer or probe to produce an image of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder
Sonogram Ultrasound image
Cystometry Process of measuring the bladder
Cystometrogram Record of the measurements of the bladder
Voiding Cystourethrography X-ray image taken while the patient is urinating
Catherization Process of inserting a flexible tube inserted into urethra and into the bladder to drain the urine
Hemodialysis -Treats End-stage Renal Failure -This type of dialysis uses a shunt or fistula to allow easy and reliable access to the blood
Cystectomy Surgical removal of the bladder
Radical Cystectomy Surgical removal of the bladder, surrounding tissues, and lymph nodes
Cystoscopy Process of using an instrument to examine the bladder
Cystoscope Instrument used to examine the bladder
Kidney transplant Procedure to remove a severely damaged kidney from a patient with end-stage kidney failure and insert a new kidney from a donor
Lithotripsy Process of crushing a stone
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Procedure that uses several hundred pulses of high energy ultrasonic shock waves from multiple angles outside of the body to break up the stone
Nephrectomy Surgical removal of the kidney or nephron
Nephrolithotomy Process of cutting out a kidney stone
Nephropexy Process of surgically fixing in place the kidney or nephron
Urethroplasty Process of reshaping the urethra by surgery
Diuretic Drugs Medications that blocks sodium from being reabsorbed from the tubule into the blood, decreasing the volume of blood
Abbreviations ARF- acute renal failure BUN- blood urea nitrogen C&S- culture and sensitivity CRF- chronic renal failure ESWL- extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ESRD- end stage renal disease
Abbreviations I&O- intake and output IVP- intravenous pyelography KUB- kidneys, ureters, bladder x-rays UA- urinalysis UTI- urinary tract infection
Urologist Physician who practices in the specialty of urology
Created by: Ash_Nic
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