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Microbiology Exam 3

1. What does the term infection refer to?
2. When does the human body usually begin to be colonized by normal biota?
3. Where can resident biota be found in/on the human?
4. What is microbial antagonism?
5. What are the normal biota of the skin?
6. What are opportunistic pathogens?
7. What factors weaken host defenses against infections?
8. How does the greatest number of pathogens enter the body?
9. What are the microbial methods of adhesion?
10. What is phagocytosis? What types of blood cell performs this?
11. What are the virulence factors microbes can possess? I.e. capsules, endo/exotoxins..etc.
12. Know the characteristics of endotoxins and exotoxins.
13. What are enterotoxins?
14. What is the function of fimbriae, capsules, coagulase, leukocidins, and hemolysins?
15. Know all the stages of disease and basics about what is going on. I.e. prodromal, incubation..etc.
16. Know these definitions: secondary infection, mixed infection , acute infection , local infection , and toxemia.
17. Know what a sign, symptom, and syndrome are.
18. What is leukopenia?
19. Know the terms bacteremia, septicemia, and viremia.
20. What are the normal portals of exit for an infectious disease?
21. What is a carrier? What is a vector( both mechanical and biological kinds)? Reservoir? What can be a reservoir?
22. What are the universal precautions for handling patients and body substances?
23. When would you use Koch’s postulates?
24. What is epidemiology?
25. Know the terms epidemic, endemic, pandemic, and sporadic.
26. What is involved in the 1st line of defense?
27. What body area depends on cilia to help clear the area of microbes?
28. What are the physical barriers to pathogens?
29. How do immune system cells differentiate between self and foreign cells?
30. What is an antigen? Antibody?
31. Which WBC releases histamine and is the least numerous?
32. Which WBC is 20-30% of WBCs and is part of the 3rd line of defense?
33. Which WBC is most numerous and has a multi-lobed nucleus?
34. What do plasma cells do?
35. Which lymphocyte functions in humoral immunity? What about cellular?
36. What are the four signs and symptoms of inflammation?
37. What are the benefits of a fever?
38. Know all the characteristics of interferon AND complement.
39. What specific WBCs are involved in acquired specific immunity?
40. What do Th cells do?
41. Lymphocyte maturation includes what steps and locations for T and B cells?
42. The major histocompatability complex is
43. Class II MHC genes code for a. certain secreted complement components. b. self receptors recognized by T lymphocytes. c. all HLA antigens. d. receptors located primarily on macrophages and B cells (APCs).
44. Class I MHC genes code for
45. The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another and where the antigen is bound is the?
46. What is an epitope?
47. What is a hapten?
48. Which of the following is not a property of B cells?
49. What are APCs, what cells can be one? How do they work?
50. Know all characteristics of the Fc region of an immunoglobulin/antibody.
51. What is neutralization? Opsonization?
52. Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
53. Know ALL characteristics of the 5 classes of immunoglobulins/antibodies. I.e. is it a monomer, dimer, or pentamer. Smallest, largest. Which can cross placenta..etc.
54. What type of cells/tissues do Tc target?
55. What allows adaptive/specific immunity to provide long-lasting protection?
56. Be able to classify situations as artificial/natural and active/passive immunity.
57. What did Jenner’s work involve?
58. How are killed or inactivated vaccines prepared?
59. What do acellular and subunit vaccines contain?
60. What activates the classical pathway of complement?
61. Which hypersensitivity categories involve immunoglobulin? Which one involves T cells?
62. Classify these as Type I, II, III, or IV:
63. What is the definition of hypersensitivity?
64. What is systemic anaphylaxis? What does it include?
65. What is desensitization?
66. Know all about hemolytic disease of the newborn and what each person must have for the Rh factor.etc.
67. Know the terms isograft, autograft, allograft, and xenograft.
68. What is autoimmunity typically caused by?
69. What are the phenotypic methods of identification?
70. What types of tests are Biochemical tests?
71. What can be used for specimen collections?
72. What specimens require a sterile needle collection?
73. What is serology?
74. What is specificity? Sensitivity?
75. What is a titer?
76. What techniques might be used to analyze tiny/minute DNA samples?
Created by: Teiarahg
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