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Ch. 7

Orthopedics the medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal and muscular systems and uses laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to
Avascular Necrosis death of cells in the epiphysis of a long bone, often the femur
Bone tumors Benign or Malignant
Osteochondroma benign Osteo=(bone), Chon= (cartilage) ,Oma =(swelling) affects males < 25 yrs old *most common* benign tumor, a bony mass
Osteoma benign affects ppl of middle age, affects facial bones associated with Gardner Syndrome
Osteoid Osteoma benign found in males, long bones, nighttime pain *relieved by NSAIDS*
Osteoblastoma benign identical to Osteoid Osteoma *not relieved by NSAIDS
Chondroma benign found in the hands or feet
Giant Cell Tumor benign 20-40 yr olds usually in the knees
Osteosarcoma malignant found in young teenage boys, long bones, sunburst appearance associated with Retinoblastoma
Chondrosarcoma malignant occurs in the medulla of the pelvis
Ewing Sarcoma malignant occurs in white boys younger than 15 yrs old in the long bones, onion skin appearance, small blue cells that resemble lymphocytes
Diseases of the bone and cartilage Chondromalacia patellae & Fracture
Chondromalacia abnormal softening of the patella because of thinning and uneven wear
Fracture broken bone due to an accident, injury, or disease process
Bone Fractures Greenstick Fracture, Open Fracture, Colles Fracture, Compressed Fracture
Greenstick Fracture a fracture that occurs in children when the bone only breaks on one side, it occurs when the bone bends and doesn't break completely
Open Fracture (compound fracture) occurs when a broken bone breaks through the overlying skin
Colles Fracture occurs when the distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand
Compressed Fracture occurs when the cranium is fractured towards the brain
Diseases of the Bones & Cartilage (3 types) Osteomalacia, Osteomyelitis, Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia abnormal softening of the bones due to severe deficiency of vitamin D
Osteomyelitis -infection in the bone and the bone marrow - infections can travel through the bloodstream or spreading from nearby tissues.
Osteoporosis abnormal thinning of the bone structure
Diseases of the Vertebrae (3 types) Ankylosing spondylitis, Ankylosing, Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis chronic inflammation of the vertebrae that leads to fibrosis, fusion, and restriction of movement of the spine.
Ankylosing Suffix: -osing condition of making CF: ankyl/o- fused together; stiff Condition of being fused together.
Spondylitis suffix: -itis inflammation; infection of CF: spondyl/o- vertebrae Inflammation or infection of the vertebrae
Diseases of the Vertebrae (3 types) Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis
Kyphosis (Humpback) abnormal, excessive, posterior curvature of the thoracic spine
Lordosis (Swayback) abnormal, excessive, anterior curvature of the lumbar spine
Scoliosis abnormal, excessive C-shaped or S-shaped lateral curvature of the spine
Diseases of the Joints & Ligaments (5 types) Arthralgia, Arthropathy, Gout, Hemarthrosis & Osteoarthritis
Arthralgia pain in the joint from injury, inflammation, or infection from various causes
Arthropathy disease of a joint from any cause
Gout metabolic disorder with high levels of uric acid in the blood
Hemarthrosis blood in the joint cavity from blunt trauma or a penetrating wound
Osteoarthritis chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, particularly the large weight bearing joints and joints that move repeatedly; ~~~Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
Rheumatoid arthritis: an autoimmune disease -acute & chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue, particularly of the joints -usually hands, wrists and knees -symptoms are mirrored on both sides of the body -fatigue, weight loss & temperature are symptoms
Diseases of the Bony Thorax Pectus Excavatum congenital deformity of the bony thorax in which the sternum, particularly the xiphoid process, is bent forward
Diseases of the Bones of the Limbs & Feet (4 types) Genu valgum, Genu varum, Hallux valgus & Talipes equiovarus
Genu Valgum (knock knees) congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated toward the midline and are abnormally close together and the lower legs are bent laterally
Genu Varum (bowleg) congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated laterally away from each other and the lower legs are bent towards the midline
Hallux Valgus (bunion) deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally towards the other toes
Talipes Equiovarus (clubfoot) congenital deformity in which the foot is pulled downward and towards the midline
Diagnostic Tests (3 types) Arthrography, Arthrogram & Bone Density Test
Arthrography procedure that uses radiopaque contrast dye that is injected into a joint
Arthrogram x-ray, CT, MRI image; picture of a joint
Bone Density Test procedure that measures the bone density to detect osteoporosis
Medical & Surgical Procedures Goniometry, Goniometer, Orthosis & Prosthesis
Goniometry (medical) procedure in which a goniometer is used to measure the angle of a joint and its range of motion (ROM)
Goniometer (medical) instrument used to measure an angle (of a joint) - measures range of motion
Orthosis (medical) orthopedic device such as a brace, splint, or collar that is used to immobilize a body part and keep it straight or correct an orthopedic problem
Prosthesis (medical) orthopedic device such as an artificial leg for a patient who has has an amputation of a limb
Amputation (surgical) procedure to remove all or part of an extremity because of trauma, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus
Arthrocentesis (surgical) procedure to remove an accumulation of fluid from an injured joint by using a needle inserted into the joint space
Arthrodesis (surgical) procedure to fuse together a joint
Arthroscopy (surgical) procedure that uses an arthroscope inserted into the joint to visualize structures inside the joint
Arthroscope (surgical) instrument used to examine a joint
Bone graft (surgical) (2 types) procedure that uses whole bone or bone chips to repair fractures with extensive bone loss or defects due to bone cancer.
Allograft frozen or freeze-dried bone taken from a cadaver
Autograft bone taken from the patient's own body
Joint placement therapy procedure to replace a joint that has been destroyed by disease or osteoarthritis * also known as arthroplasty
Drug Categories (4 types) Analgesic drugs, Bone Resorption drugs, Corticosteroids & Gold Compound drugs
Analgesic Drugs medications used to treat pain, can be over-the-counter -ex. acetaminophen or aspirin suffix: -ic pertaining to Prefix: an- not; without CF: alges/o- sensation of pain MD: pertaining to without the sensation of pain
Bone Resorption Drugs medications that inhibit osteoclasts from breaking down bone; used to prevent and treat osteoporosis
Corticosteroid medications that decrease severe inflammation
Gold Compound Drugs medications that inhibit the autoimmune response that attacks the joints and connective tissues in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Abbreviations AKA: Above the knee BKA: Below the knee DJD: Degenerative Joint Disease OA: Osteoarthritis ORIF: Open reduction and internal fixation ~ treats com. frac. RA: Rheumatoid Arthritis ROM: Range of Motion THR: Total Hip Replacement
Created by: Ash_Nic
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