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Med.Term C18 Vocab

Chabner, Language of Medicine 11th edition-Chapter 18 Vocabulary

VocabularyMeaning
adrenal cortex Outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
adrenal medulla Inner section of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
ovaries Located in the lower abdomen of female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
pancreas Located behind the stomach
parathyroid glands Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland
pituitary gland (hypophysis) Located at the base of brain in the sella turcica
testes Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
thyroid gland Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin
adrenaline (epinephrine) Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
Adrenocortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal cortex
Aldosterone Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt reabsorption
androgen Male hormone secreted by the testes and adrenal cortex (to a lesser extent)
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; increases reabsorption of water by kidney
calcitonin Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels
cortisol Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar
epinephrine (adrenaline) Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
estradiol Estrogen secreted by the ovaries
estrogen Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and adrenal cortex (to lesser extent)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by ovaries and sperm production by testes
glucagons Secreted by alpha islet cells of pancreas; increases blood sugar
growth hormone (GH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues; somatotropin
insulin Secreted by beta islet cells of pancreas; helps glucose pass into cells and promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen
luteinizing hormone (LH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males
norepinephrine Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
oxytocin (OT) Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of uterus during labor and childbirth
parathormone (PTH) Secreted by parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium
progesterone Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy
prolactin (PRL) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion
somatotropin (STH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone
testosterone Male hormone secreted by the testes
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes thyroid function; thyrotropin
thyroxine (T4) Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases cell metabolism
triiodothyronine (T3) Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases cell metabolism
vasopressin Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH); raises water reabsorption and raises blood pressure
catecholamines hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla
corticosteroids Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
electrolyte Mineral salt found in blood and tissues
glucocorticoid Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism
homeostasis Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment
hormone Substance secreted by an endocrine gland to influence structure or function of an organ or gland
hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland
mineralocorticoid Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts and water balance in the body
receptor Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited
sella turcica Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland
sex hormones Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics
steroid Complex substance related to fats and of which many hormones are made
Sympatho-mimetic Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
target tissue Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones
 



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