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Pulmonology

Ch. 4

TermDefinition
Respiratory Pertaining to again and again breathe.
Nasal Pertaining to the nose
Respiration Process of again and again breathe.
Inhalation Process of breathing in.
Inspiration Process of breathing in.
Exhalation Process of breathing out.
Expiration Process of breathing out.
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) -bacterial or viral infection of the nose and/or throat -common cold -head cold
Asthma -hyperactivity of the bronchi and bronchioles with the bronchospasm. -attacks are triggered by exposure to allergens, dust, mold, smoke, inhaled chemicals, exercise, cold air, or emotional stress.
Bronchospasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction of the bronchus.
Bronchitis acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the bronchus.
Bronchiectasis -chronic, permanent enlargement and loss of elasticity of the bronchioles. suffix: -ectasis condition of dilation CF: Bronchi/o- bronchus MD: Condition of dilation of the bronchus.
Abnormal breath sounds Rales, Rhonchi, Stridor, Wheezes
Rales irregular cracking or bubbling sounds during inspiration.
Rhonchi humming, whistling or snoring sounds during inspiration or expirations.
Stridor high-pitched, harsh, crowing sound due to edema or obstruction in the trachea or larynx.
Wheezes high-pitched whistling or squeaking sounds during inspiration or expiration.
Atelectasis collapsed lung
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) combination of chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, caused by chronic exposure to pollution or smoking.
Emphysema alveoli become hyperinflated and often rupture, creating large air pockets in the lungs. Condition of the lungs being distended and inflated.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) hereditary, fatal disease caused by a recessive gene-affects all the Exocrine cells (those that secrete mucus, Digestive Enzymes, or sweat)- mucus is abnormally thick and it blocks alveoli causing Dyspnea.
Empyema - localized collection of Purulent (pus) material in the Thoracic cavity from an infection in the lungs. -also known as Pyothorax*
Purulent pertaining to pus
Influenza -flu -acute viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory system
Carcinoma tumor or mass of cancer.
Pneumoconiosis general word for any occupational lung disease caused by chronically inhaling some type of dust or particle.
Pneumonia infection of some or all of the lobes of the lungs caused by bacteria, virus, or fungus.
Aspiration Pneumonia infection caused by foreign matter (chemical, vomit) that is inhaled into the lung.
Double Pneumonia infection that involves both lungs.
Lobar Pneumonia infection that affects part or all of just one lobe of the lung.
Panlobar Pneumonia infection that affects all of the lobes of one lung.
Pulmonary Edema condition that accompanies left-sided failure of the heart and is characterized by noninfectious fluid build-up in the alveoli & lung tissues.
Pulmonary Embolism -blockage of a pulmonary artery or one of its branches by an embolus. -blood clot in the lung
Tuberculosis (TB) lung infection caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis spread by airborne droplets and coughing.
Hemothorax presence of blood in the thoracic cavity, from trauma.
Pleural Effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (between the two layers of pleural) due to inflammation or infection of the lungs.
Pleurisy inflammation or infection of the pleura due to pneumonia.
Pneumothorax -large volume of air in the pleural space -fully collapsed lung
Apnea brief or prolonged absence of spontaneous respirations due to respiratory failure or respiratory arrest.
Bradypnea abnormally slow rate of breathing (less than 10 breaths per min in adults).
Expectoration coughing up sputum from the lungs.
Hemoptysis coughing up blood-tinged sputum.
Dyspnea -difficult, labored, or painful respirations due to lung disease. SOB- shortness of breath DOE- dyspnea on exertion
Orthopnea the need to be propped in an upright or semi-upright position in order to breathe and sleep comfortably due to dyspnea and congestion.
Tachypnea abnormally rapid rate of breathing (greater than 20 breaths per min in adults) that is caused by lung disease.
Anoxia Complete lack ( or severely decreased level) of oxygen in the arterial blood and body tissues- caused by lack of oxygen in the inhaled air or by an obstruction that prevents oxygen from reaching the lungs.
Asphyxia the decrease in the heart rate and blueness of the skin that occur because of an abnormally high level of CO2 and an abnormally low level of oxygen.
Cyanosis blueish-grey discoloration of the skin because of a very low level of oxygen and a very high level of CO2 in the blood and tissues.
Anthracosis milder type of penumoconiosis, as caused by the accumulation of carbon in the lungs due to repeated exposure to air pollutions or inhalation of smoke or coal dust particles.
Hypoxemia very low level of oxygen in the arterial blood.
Hypoxia very low level of oxygen in the cells.
Oximetry procedure in which an oximeter is placed on the patient's index finger or earlobe to measure the degree of oxygen saturation of the blood.
Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) procedure to measure the capacity of the lungs and the volume of air during inhalation and exhalation.
Auscultation procedure that uses a stethoscope to listen to breath sounds.
Percussion uses the finger on one hand to tap over the finger of the other hand that is spread across the patient's back over a lobe of the lung.
Stethoscope instrument used to examine the chest.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedure to ventilate the lungs and circulate the blood if the patient has stopped breathing and the heart has stopped beating.
Bronchoscopy procedure that uses a bronchoscope inserted through the mouth and larynx to examine the trachea and bronchi.
Lobectomy procedure to remove an entire lobe of the lung.
Pneumonectomy procedure to remove an entire lung.
Thoracentesis procedure that uses a needle and a vacuum container to remove pleural fluid from the pleural space.
Thoracotomy incision into the thoracic cavity.
Tracheostomy procedure that begins with an incision into the trachea to create an opening.
Respiratory Therapist allied health professional who preform pulmonary function tests and administer respiratory therapy with various tubes of equipment that provide oxygen or respiratory assistance to a patient.
Pulmonologist physician who practice in the medical specialty of pulmonology. They diagnose and treat patients with respiratory problems.
ABG CF COPD CPR RRT SOB TB URI arterial blood gases cystic fibrosis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cardiopulmonary resuscitation registered respiratory therapist shortness of breath tuberculosis upper respiratory infection
Created by: Ash_Nic
 

 



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