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Med Terminology: CH4

Sydney Henderson

TermDefinition
Brain portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
Cerebrum largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge a nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
Frontal lobe anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
Parietal lobe portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
Temporal lobe portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste and smell
Occipital lobe portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
Cerebral cortex outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
Thalamus each of two masses of gray matter deep within the brain between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
Diencephalon area deep within the brain that contains the thalamus and hypothalamus and is the link between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain-stem; responsible for directing sensory information to the cortex
Gyri convulsions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
Sulci shallow groves that separate gyri
Fissures deep grooves in the brain
Cerebellum portion of the brain located between below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
Brainstem region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
Ventricles series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
Spinal cord column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and body
Meninges three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
Spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
Sensory nerves nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
Motor nerves nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
Hypothalamus control center for the autonomic nervous system located near the pituitary gland
Sympathetic Nervous System division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions; can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life; for example, the thought that a door is not locked causing repetitive checking to make sure it is lo
Hypochondriasis a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
Autism a developmental disability, commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything
Dyslexia a developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self-expression
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work
Intellectual disability a condition of below average intelligence or mental ability and lack of skills necessary for day-to-day activities; there are varying degrees ranging from mild to profound.
Anorexia nervosa a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise.
Substance abuse disorders mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, and polysubstance
Schizophrenia a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include distortions of normal function (such as disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior), flat affect, apath
Created by: SyddySyd
 

 



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