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CMT Chapter 5

Comprehensive Medical Terminology Chapter 5

integumentary system the body system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
cutaneous membrane the skin, also called integument
melanina a black or dark pigment (produced by melanocytes within the epidermis) that contributes color to the skin and helps filter ultraviolet light.
Sweat glands one of the tiny structures within the dermis that produces sweat, which carries waste products to the surface of the skin for excretion; also known as a sudoriferous gland.
pores openings of the skin through which substances such as water, salts, and some fatty substances are excreted.
dermatology The study of the skin
dermatologist physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and disorders of the skin
epidermis the outermost layer of the skin.
dermis the layer of skin immediately beneath the epidermis; the corium.
stratified layered; arranged in layers.
stratum basale (basal layer) the deepest layer of skin where new cells are continually being reproduced, pushing older cells toward the outermost surface of the skin.
stratum corneum the outermost layer of the epidermis (consisting of dead cells that have converted to keratin), which continually sloughs off or flakes away; known as the keratinized (or “horny”) cell layer (kerat/o = horn).
melanocytes cells responsible for producing melanin.
keratin a hard fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, nails, enamel of the teeth, and horns of animals.
sebaceous gland oil gland located in the dermis; its secretions provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin.
striae stretch marks; linear tears in the dermis that result from overstretching from rapid growth
subcutaneous tissue the fatty layer of tissue located beneath the dermis.
hair root the portion of a strand of hair that is embedded in the hair follicle.
hair follicle the tiny tube within the dermis that contains the root of a hair shaft.
hair shaft the visible part of the hair.
lanugo soft, very fine hair that covers the body of the developing fetus; this hairy coating is almost completely gone by birth.
nail body the visible part of the nail.
cuticle fold of skin at the base of the nail body
lunula the crescent-shaped pale area at the base of the fingernail or toenail.
free edge part of the nail that extends beyond the tip of the fingertip or toe
nail bed epithelial layer located directly beneath the nail body; nourishes the nail body
sweat the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands; also known as perspiration.
sudoriferous gland one of the tiny structures within the dermis that produces sweat, which carries waste products to the surface of the skin for excretion
pores openings of the skin through which substances such as water, salts, and some fatty substances are excreted.
sebum the oily secretions of the sebaceous glands
pimple a papule or pustule of the skin.
ceruminous gland a modified sweat gland that lubricates the skin of the ear canal with a yellowish-brown waxy substance called cerumen (or ear wax).
cerumen earwax
adip/o fat
albin/o white
caut/o burn
cutane/o skin
derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
-edema swelling
erythr/o red
fasci/o band of fibrous tissue
hidr/o sweat
hist/o, histi/o tissue
ichthy/o fish
kerat/o hard, horny; also cornea of the eye
leuk/o white
lip/o fat
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
necr/o death
onych/o nails
pil/o hair
scler/o hard; also sclera of the eye
squam/o scales
trich/o hair
xanth/o yellow
xer/o dryness
abrason a scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area.
abscess A localized collection of pus in any part of the body
albino An individual with a marked deficiency of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin.
alopecia Partial or complete loss of hair; baldness. Alopecia may result from normal aging, a reaction to a medication such as anticancer medications, an endocrine disorder, or some skin disease
amputation The surgical removal of a part of the body or a limb or a part of a limb; performed to treat recurrent infections or gangrene of a limb.
blister, vesicle a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid
boil A localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a furuncle.
bruise A bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of an injury to the area; also ecchymosis.
bulla a large blister
carbuncle A circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that contains pus, which eventually discharges to the skin surface.
cellulitis A diffuse acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, characterized by localized heat, deep redness, pain, and swelling
cicatrix A scar; the pale, firm tissue that forms in the healing of a wound
circumscribed Confined to a limited space or well-defined area (as if a circle were drawn around it).
collagen The protein substance that forms the glistening inelastic fibers of connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments, and fascia.
comedo The typical lesion of acne vulgaris, caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle (closed comedo = whitehead; open comedo = blackhead).
contusion An injury to a part of the body without a break in the skin.
corium The dermis; the layer of the skin just under the epidermis.
cryosurgery A noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy the tissue. Coolants such as liquid nitrogen are used in the metal probe.
curettage The process of scraping material from the wall of a cavity or other surface for the purpose of removing abnormal tissue or unwanted material.
cyanosis A condition of a bluish discoloration of the skin.
cyst A closed sac or pouch in or within the skin that contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material.
debridement Removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and to promote healing.
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
diaphoresis The secretion of sweat.
ecchymosis A bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of injury to the area; also known as a bruise or a black-and-blue mark
electrodesiccation A technique that uses an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used primarily for the removal of surface lesions.
epi- upon, over
epidermoid/sebaceous cyst A cyst filled with a cheesy material composed of sebum and epithelial debris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland
epithelium The tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body.
erythema; erythroderma Redness of the skin due to capillary dilation. An example of erythema is nervous blushing or a mild sunburn.
erythremia An abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera.
excoriation An injury to the surface of the skin caused by trauma, such as scratching or abrasions.
exfoliation Peeling or sloughing off of tissue cells, as in peeling of the skin after a severe sunburn.
fissure A cracklike sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane.
fistula An abnormal passageway between two tubular organs (e.g., rectum and vagina) or from an organ to the body surface.
furuncle A localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a boil
gangrene Death of tissue, most often involving the extremities. Gangrene is usually the result of ischemia (loss of blood supply to an area), bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction (decaying) of the tissue.
hemangioma A benign (nonmalignant) tumor that consists of a mass of blood vessels and has a reddish-purple color
heparin A natural anticoagulant substance produced by the body tissues; heparin is also produced in laboratories for therapeutic use as heparin sodium.
hirsutism Excessive body hair in an adult male distribution pattern, occurring in women.
histamine A substance (found in all cells) that is released in allergic inflammatory reactions.
histiocyte Macrophage; a large phagocytic cell (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue.
hives Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions of the skin that are paler in the center than its surrounding edges; see wheal.
hydrocele A collection of fluid located in the area of the scrotal sac in the male.
ichthyosis An inherited dermatological condition in which the skin is dry, hyperkeratotic (hardened), and fissured—resembling fish scales.
keratolytic An agent used to break down or loosen the horny (hardened) layer of the skin.
laceration A tear in the skin.
lesion Any visible damage to the tissues of the skin, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil.
lipedema An abnormal condition in which there is swelling/enlargement of the lower extremities due to an irregular distribution of fat and fluid deposits in the subcutaneous tissue
lipocyte A fat cell.
macrophage A large phagocytic cell (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue; see histiocyte.
macule A small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed.
mast cell A cell (found within the connective tissue) that contains heparin and histamine; these substances are released from the mast cell in response to injury and infection.
melanoma Darkly pigmented tumor
necrotizing fasciitis A rare, but serious infection caused by bacteria (such as Group A streptococci) that can destroy skin, fat, and the tissue covering the muscles within a very short time
nodule A small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin.
onycholysis Separation of a fingernail from its bed, beginning at the free margin. This condition is associated with dermatitis of the hand, psoriasis, and fungal infections.
onychomycosis Any fungal infection of the nails.
onychophagia The habit of biting the nails.
pachyderma Abnormal thickening of the skin.
papule A small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin.
paronychia Inflammation of the fold of skin surrounding the fingernail; also called runaround
pediculosis Infestation with lice.
petechia Small, pinpoint hemorrhages of the skin.
polyp A small, stalk-like growth that protrudes upward or outward from a mucous membrane surface, resembling a mushroom stalk.
pressure ulcer An inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence of the body, resulting from loss of blood supply and oxygen to the area due to prolonged pressure on the body part; also known as a decubitus ulcer or pressure sore.
pruritus Itching
purpura A group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes; small, pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic areas are known as ecchymoses or bruises.
pustule A small elevation of the skin filled with pus; a small abscess.
scales Thin flakes of hardened epithelium shed from the epidermis.
seborrhea Excessive secretion of sebum, resulting in excessive oiliness or dry scales.
skin tags, cutaneous papilloma. A small brownish or flesh-colored outgrowth of skin occurring frequently on the neck
squamous epithelial cells Flat scalelike cells arranged in layers (strata).
squamous epithelium The single layer of flattened platelike cells that cover internal and external body surfaces.
stratum A uniformly thick sheet or layer of cells.
subungual hematoma A collection of blood beneath a nail bed, usually the result of trauma (injury).
telangiectasia The permanent dilation of groups of superficial capillaries and venules. These dilated vessels may be visible through the skin as tiny red lines. Common causes include but are not limited to rosacea, elevated estrogen levels, and actinic damage.
ulcer A circumscribed, open sore or lesion of the skin that is accompanied by inflammation.
urticaria A reaction of the skin in which there is an appearance of smooth, slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often accompanied by severe itching (pruritus).
vitiligo A skin disorder characterized by nonpigmented white patches of skin of varying sizes that are surrounded by skin with normal pigmentation.
wheal A circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin that is paler in the center than its surrounding edges; hives.
open comedo blackhead; caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle.
closed comedo whitehead; caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle; the content within is not easily expressed.
xanthoderma Any yellow coloration of the skin.
xeroderma A chronic skin condition characterized by roughness and dryness.
acne vulgaris A common inflammatory disorder seen on the face, chest, back, and neck; appears as papules, pustules, and comedos; commonly known as acne.
first degree burn, superficial burn burn affecting the epidermis
second degree burn, partial thickness burn affecting the epidermis and dermis
third degree burn, full thickness burn involving massive necrosis of the epidermis and entire dermis, and may include part of the subcutaneous tissue or muscle
callus a common (usually painless) thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction,
basal cell carcinoma A malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows. As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds.
curettage and electrodesiccation a combination procedure of curettage that involves scraping away abnormal tissue and electrodesiccation, which involves destroying the tumor base with a low-voltage electrode.
squamous cell carcinoma a malignancy of the squamous (or scalelike) cells of the epithelial tissue, which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and which has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated.
Allergic contact dermatitis When coming in contact with a substance for the first time, no immediate inflammation occurs, but future exposure to this substance will result in severe acute inflammation
Irritant contact dermatitis occurs following repeated exposure of a mild irritant or initial exposure of a strong irritant.
seborrheic dermatitis skin appears reddened with a greasy, yellowish crusting or scales
eczema an acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, or scabs and accompanied by intense itching.
exanthematous viral diseases a skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease.
herpes zoster, shingles an acute viral infection characterized by painful vesicular eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves.
hyperkeratosis an overgrowth of the horny layer of the epidermis.
impetigo contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria, usually forming on the face.
Kaposi’s sarcoma a locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS, typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs, or mucous membranes.
keloid an enlarged, irregularly shaped, and elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during the formation of the scar.
keratosis skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium.
seborrheic keratosis appears as brown or waxy yellow wartlike lesion(s) 5 to 20 mm in diameter, loosely attached to the skin surface.
actinic keratosis a premalignant, gray or red-to-brown, hardened lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight.
leukoplakia white, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane in areas such as the mouth, vulva, or penis
malignant melanoma malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor
nevus, mole A visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders.
onychocryptosis ingrown nail
pemphigus a rare incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin which spread to involve large areas of the body, including the chest, face, umbilicus, back, and groin.
pilonidal cyst a closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back, sometimes noted at birth as a dimple.
psoriasis A common, noninfectious, chronic disorder of the skin manifested by silvery-white scales covering round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching
rosacea chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face. The individual has persistent redness over the areas of the face, nose, and cheeks.
scabies a highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite,” resulting in a rash, pruritus, and slightly raised thread-like skin lines.
scleroderma gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue.
systemic lupus erythematosus a chronic inflammatory connective-tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs; butterfly rash appears on face
tinea, ringworn a chronic fungal infection of the skin that is characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions. The lesions are named according to the body part affected.
tinea corporis ringworm of the body
tinea cruris ringworm of the groin is also known as jock itch.
tinea pedis ringworm of the foot is also known as athlete’s foot.
wart, verruca A benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis; caused by the human papilloma virus
electrodesiccation a technique that uses an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used primarily for the removal of surface lesions.
verruca vulgaris, common wart occurs on the face, elbow, fingers, or hands
Plantar warts occur either singly or in clusters on the sole of the foot
Condyloma acuminata, venereal warts transmitted via sexual contact and are found on the female genitalia, the penis, or the rectum
allergy testing various procedures used to identify specific allergens in an individual by exposing the person to a very small quantity of the allergen.
cautery heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin (coagulation of tissue).
dermabrasion removal of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes to eliminate superficial scars or unwanted tattoos.
dermatoplasty skin transplantation to a body surface damaged by injury or disease.
electrosurgery the removal or destruction of tissue with an electrical current.
escharotomy an incision made into the necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn.
liposuction aspiration of fat through a suction cannula or curette to alter the body contours.
skin biopsy the removal of a small piece of tissue from a skin lesion for the purpose of examining it under a microscope to confirm or establish a diagnosis.
excisional biopsy removal of the complete tumor or lesion for analysis
incisional biopsy a portion of the lesion is removed with a scalpel
punch biopsy removal of a small specimen of tissue in the “cookie cutter” fashion
shave biopsy uses the scalpel or a razor blade to shave lesions elevated above the skin
skin graft process of placing tissue on a recipient site, taken from a donor site, to provide the protective mechanisms of skin to an area unable to regenerate skin (as in third-degree burns).
autografting donor tissue comes from the person receiving the graft (transplanting tissue from one part of the body to another location in the same individual)
homografting, allografting donor tissue is harvested from a cadaver
heterograft, xenograft donor tissue is obtained from an animal.
Wood’s lamp an ultraviolet light used to examine the scalp and skin for the purpose of observing fungal spores.
Bx, bx biopsy
decub. decubitus (ulcer); pressure sore
DLE discoid lupus erythematosus
EAHF eczema, asthma, and hay fever
FANA fluorescent antinuclear antibody
FS frozen section
ID intradermal
I&D incision and drainage
LE (systemic) lupus erythematosus
PPD purified protein derivative
PSS progressive systemic scleroderma
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
subq. subcutaneous
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
ung. ointment
UV ultraviolet (light)
XP, XDP xeroderma pigmentosum
Created by: mariana45212
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