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CS urinary

CareerStep Urinary Module

QuestionAnswer
kidney One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen which help filter the blood and aid in urine excretion.
adrenal gland One of a pair of small glands, each of which sits on top of one of the kidneys.
retroperitoneal External to or posterior to the peritoneum.
hilum Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter.
renal cortex The outer part or substance of the kidney.
renal medulla The inner part or substance of the kidney.
ureter Transfers urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The human body has two and they are located in the retroperitoneal area.
urinary bladder The urinary bladder is a storage sac for urine.
renal Pertaining to the kidneys.
urethra Tubular structure which transports urine from the bladder to outside the body.
column of Bertin Inward extensions of the cortical structure of the kidney between the renal pyramids.
malpighian corpuscles A body that forms the beginning of a nephron, consisting of a glomerulus surrounded by the glomerular capsule (an expanded portion of the renal tubule).
micturition Process of eliminating urine from the bladder.
urethral orifice The opening between the bladder and the urethra at one corner of the bladder trigone.
trigone Triangular area within the bladder formed by two ureteral openings and a single urethral opening.
squamous Flat or scale-like.
papilla The blunted apex of a renal pyramid, found in the inner zone of the renal medulla and projecting into a renal sinus.
transitional epithelium Lining of the lumen of the ureters and the bladder.
renal pyramids The conical masses that make up the substance of the renal medulla; they contain the loops of Henle, the collecting ducts, and the straight arterioles of the kidney.
calix The recesses of the renal pelvis that enclose the renal pyramids.
anuria The complete suppression of urinary secretions by the kidneys.
dribbling The uncontrollable passage of drops of urine. This is particularly a problem immediately after voiding.
dysuria Painful or difficult urination.
edema The presence of abnormally large quantities of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, often due to abnormal renal function.
enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine after an age at which urinary control should have been achieved. This term is most often used specifically to denote bedwetting.
frequency Frequent micturition. Of course, frequency is a term used in everyday language. However, in medical reports this almost always refers to increased frequency in the number of times that a patient urinates throughout a 24 hour period, and is just called “f
hematuria Blood in the urine. There are two different types of hematuria, gross and microscopic. Gross hematuria means that it is visible to the naked eye. Microscopic hematuria can only be detected upon laboratory examination.
hesitancy Difficulty initiating urine flow. This, too, is a word that is applicable in everyday language. However, in medical reports, it is used alone and refers to this functional problem.
incontinence Inability to control excretory functions, (both urination and defecation). This can occur regularly or be secondary to coughing, sneezing, laughing, or straining.
ischuria Suppression or retention of urine, either voluntary or involuntary. This can require catheterization for release of urine.
nocturia Voiding during the night.
oliguria The excretion of a diminished amount of urine relative to the fluid intake in 24 hours.
pneumaturia The passage of gas in the urine. This is rare and generally indicates a fistula between the urinary tract and the bowel.
pollakiuria Increased frequency of urination, without an increase in total volume.
polyuria Increase in the total volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period (usually with concomitant increase in frequency).
tenesmus Straining, especially ineffectual and painful straining during passage of stool or urine.
urgency A compelling need to void. Involuntary urination may occur if voiding is not immediate.
azotemia An excess of urea or other nitrogenous compounds of the blood.
calculi The most common type is renal calculi or kidney stones. These are caused by salts in the urine when the urine is alkaline.
cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder. More common in women than men because the urethra is shorter.
diabetes mellitus An endocrine metabolic disorder resulting from an inadequate utilization of insulin. One of the most common early symptoms is excessive urination, and it can be detected by glycosuria—glucose in the urine.
diabetic nephropathy A disease of the kidneys (nephropathy) that accompanies diabetes mellitus and leads ultimately to renal failure.
exstrophy of the bladder A congenital deformity resulting from failure of the pelvic structures to fuse so that the bladder opens on the surface of the lower abdomen.
Fanconi syndrome A failure of the renal tubules to absorb amino acids, glucose, and phosphorus. Osteomalacia and skeletal malformations can result.
floating kidney A kidney that has become loosely attached to its bed of fat. This usually results when an obese patient loses a lot of weight.
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli (cluster of nerves or vessels) of the kidneys, usually in response to an infection. There are both acute and chronic types and it causes deterioration of renal function.
horseshoe kidney Fusion of the kidneys across the midline, either by renal tissue or a fibrous band.
hydronephrosis Distention of the pelves and calices of the kidneys due to obstruction of the ureters.
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Disease Also called glomerulosclerosis, occurs when rounded nodular hyaline masses form in the glomeruli of the kidneys. This disease is present in 25% of people with diabetes mellitus.
metabolic acidosis A disturbance of the acid-base balance in the body towards the acid side.
nephritis Inflammation of the kidneys.
nephrosis/nephrotic syndrome An abnormal condition of the kidney, characterized by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. It occurs in glomerular disease and in thrombosis of a renal vein, or it may be a complication of systemic disorders such as diabetes, lupus, or multipl
papillary necrosis Also called necrotizing papillitis, this occurs when the renal papillae become infarcted and necrotic and the apices slough into the renal pelvis.
polycystic kidney disease A hereditary condition where much of the renal tissue is replaced by clusters of cysts containing either clear or hemorrhagic fluid. Renal function is severely impaired.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney and the renal pelvis, often involving the ureters as well, due to bacteria.
renal failure Acute renal failure is associated with rapidly increasing azotemia and causes the kidneys to lose function. Chronic renal failure can be due to a myriad of pathologies and causes steady deterioration of the kidneys’ ability to excrete and regulate normal
urolithiasis The formation of calculi in the urinary tract. This can be caused by disease or alteration in the composition of urine.
urinary tract infection (UTI) The invasion of the urinary tract by microorganisms, which can lead to a number of symptoms including nocturia, tenesmus, dysuria, etc.
Wilms tumor Also called nephroblastoma, it is a rapidly developing mixed tumor of the kidneys that occurs late in fetal life or early in infancy. Growth is rapid and spreads to the lungs and the brain.
Created by: inc1961