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AP Euro History Ch20

QuestionAnswer
1. Industrial Revolution New sources of energy and power, especially coal and steam, replacrd wind and water to build and run machines that dramatically decreased the use of human and animal labor and at the same time increaed productivity
2. Agricultural Revolution created a significant increase in food production+. British agriculture could now feed more eople at lower prices with less labor
3. Cotton Industry production of cheap cotton goods using traditional methods
4. Canals new form of transportation
5. Richard Arkwright Water Frame spinning machine powered by water or horse
6. James Hargrcares Spinning Jenny enabled spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities
7. Samuel Cromptm Mole combined aspects of the water frame and spinning jenny, increased roduction even more
8. Hand-loom weavers and the cottage system were gradually replaced by new machines such as the power loom
9. coal and coke unlimitted in quantity, powered the steam engine; deprived from coal
10. James watt and the rotary engune could pump water from a mine three times as fast as previous engines
11. Henry Cort and puddling coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality
12. Richard Trevithick pioneered the first steam-powered locomotive on an industrial rail line in southern Wales
13. George Stephenson's Rocket was used on the first public railway line, moving at 16 miles per hour
14. Railroads increased demands and roduction of coal and iron
15. The factory became the cheif means of organizing labor for the new machines
16. Factory discipline performed a set of tasks over and over again as efficiently as possible
17. Great Exhibition of 1851 displayed great britians wealth to the world
18. The Crystal Palace the british organized the first industrial fair and housed it here
19. Tariffs used to further industrialization
20. joint-stock unvestment banks mobilized the savings of thousands ofsmall and large investors, creating a supply of capital that could then be plowed back into industry
21. Credit Mobilier and the Kreditanstalt took in savings of small investors and bought shares in the new industries
22. The Americal system This transportation revolution revolution turned the United States into a single massive market for the manufactured goods of the Northeast
23. Steamboats facilitated transportation on the great lakes
24. India's cotton cloth production world's greatest exporters of cotton cloth produced by hand
25. Ireland and the potato a nutritious and relatively easy food to grow that produced three times as much food per acre as grain, gave irish peasants a basic staple that enabled them to survive and even expand in numbers
26. The Great Famine decimated the irish population, died of starvation and disease
27. Suburbs outer ring of the city, where people could have individual houses and gardens
28. Britian's poor law commission produced detailed reports. The investigators where often struck by the physically and morally debilitating effect of the urban industrial life on the poor
29. Edwin Chadwick With a baclground in law, Chadwick became obsessed with eliminating the overty and squalor of the metropitan areas
30. Cholera As city authorities and wealthier residents became convinced that filthy conditions helped spread the disease, they began to support the call for new ublic health measures.
31. Bourgeoisie (middle class) burgher or town dweller, active as a merchant, officail, artisain, lawyer or scholar, who enjoyed a secail set of rights from the charter of the town
32. The old and new elites Increasingly, the new industrial entrepeneurs- the bankers and owners of factories and mines- came to amass much wealth and play an important role alongside the tranditional landed elites of their society
33. Working class a mixture of groups' artisans of craftspeople, sheomaking, glovemaking, bookbinding, printing, and bricklaying
34. Child labor orphans or child abandond by their parents wound up in the care of local arishes, cheap source of labor, worked long hours under strict disipline and recieved inadequate food and recreation
35. Domestic servants made it possible for women to continue their contribution to family survival
36. Trades unions skilled workers in a number of industries: cotton spiners, ironworkers, coal minners, and shiwrights
37. Robert Owen One of the leaders of the union movement was a well-known cotton magnate and social reformer
38. The Great National Consolidated Trades Union As a national federation of the trade unions, its primary purpose was to coordinate a general strike for the eight-hour working day
39. The Amalgamated Society of Engineerss The largest and most succesful of the trade unions
40. Luddites skilled craftspeople in the Midlands and northern England who in 1812, attacked the machines that they thought threatened their livelihoods
41. Chartism and the people's charter attempts of the British workers to improve their coditions. The charter demanded universal male suffrage, payment for members of parliment, the elimination of property qualifications for members of arliment, annual sessions od parliment
42. The London Workingmen's Association drew up the People's Charter
43. Factory acts limited labor for children between the ages of nine and sixteen to twelve hours a day; the employment of children under nine years of age was forrbidden
44. Ten hours Act of 1847 Children between nine and thirteen could only work eighteen hours a day; those between thirteen and eighteen, twelve hours
45. Coal Mines Act of 1842 eliminated the employment of boys under ten and women in mines
Created by: ambrecooper