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Med. Term

Chabner, Language of Medicine 11th edition-Chapter 05 Vocabulary Words

absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids Small building blocks of proteins; released when proteins are digested
amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch
anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of body
appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum
bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; breaks up large fat globules; composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel Intestine
canine teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum First part of the large intestine
colon Consists of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments
common bile duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum; also called the choledochus
defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
deglutition Swallowing
dentin Primary material found in teeth; covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum First part of the small intestine; measures 12 inches long
elimination Act of removal of materials from the body
emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules
enamel Hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme Chemical that speeds up reactions between substances; enzyme names end in –ase
esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids Substances produced when fats are digested; a category of lipids
feces Solid wastes; stool
gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose Simple sugar
glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid Substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum Third part of the small intestine
incisor One of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin Hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum Second part of the small intestine
lipase Pancreatic enzyme needed to digest fats
liver Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out RBCs; filters out toxins; normal adult liver weighs about 2 ½ to 3 pounds
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach; cardiac sphincter
mastication Chewing
molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
palate Roof of the mouth
pancreas Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
papillae (singular: papilla) Small, projections on the tongue
parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease Enzyme that digests protein
pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum; opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands; contains the enzyme amylase
salivary glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol; subgroup of lipids
uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi (singular: villus) Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
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