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HSE-1 S1 Final Exam

Review for the Health Sciences Education-I/Ivy Tech Intro to Health Careers Exam

TermDefinition
Florence Nightingale The founder of modern nursing school education; Established nursing as a respected profession
Hippocrates Greek physician considered to be the "Father of Medicine."
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin (the first antibiotic); Now bacterial infections could be effectively treated.
Edward Jenner Developed a vaccination for smallpox that helped eradicated smallpox around the world
Jonas Salk Developed a vaccination for polio
Clara Barton Created the American Red Cross
Rene Laennec Invented the stethoscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope
Copayment The specific, set amount of money a patient pays for a particular service such as a prescription medication or office visit.
Premium The amount of money paid every month in order to have a health insurance plan.
Deductible The specified dollar amount that must be paid out-of-pocket before the health insurance plan begins to pay a portion.
Coinsurance The percentage of a medical bill that is paid by the policy holder after the deductible has been met.
Medicare The federally funded insurance plan for U.S. citizens ages 65-years and over, individuals disabled and receiving social security benefits for a minimum of 2 years and individuals in end-stage renal failure (ESRF).
Medicaid The federally and state funded insurance plan for low income individuals, children who qualify for public assistance, the physically disabled and the blind
Workers' Compensation A health insurance plan paid for by employers that covers employees injured on the job.
Tricare Health insurance for active duty military, their family, and retired veterans
CHIP Health insurance for children of families that do not qualify for Medicaid but still can not afford medical insurance.
Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA) provides strict guidelines for maintaining confidentiality of health care information.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) A type of Managed Care plan for which a set network of physicians is created. The focus is on prevention and wellness in order to keep costs down. If you go outside the network, you will pay more.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) A type of Managed Care plan for which a set network of physicians is created. The focus is on prevention and wellness in order to keep costs down. You can NOT go outside of the network.
3 Causes of Rising Health Care Costs Aging population (People live longer now) Medical lawsuits Advancing technology (it is expensive to develop and operate)
Current Trends in Health Care Cost Containment (Keeping costs low) Geriatric Care (aging population) Outpatient Care (Home Health Care; Telemedicine) CAM's (Holistic Care) Biotechnology Pandemic Response
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) The federal government agency that studies the causes, spread and control of disease in the population in the United States.
Food & Drug Administration (FDA) The federal government agency responsible for regulating and ensuring the safety of our food, cosmetics, medical devices, medications, cell phones, etc. *
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) The government agency that establishes standards of workplace safety that protects workers while on the job. *
World Health Organization (WHO) The international agency, made up of multiple nations, that investigates serious health threats throughout the world.
Holistic Care Care that promotes physical, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual well-being
Associate's Degree A college degree awarded by a community college after completion of 2-years of study
Bachelor's Degree A college degree awarded by a university after completion of 4-years of concentrated study of a particular subject.
Master's Degree A college degree awarded after a graduate level course of study in a concentrated subject that extends 1-2+ years of study beyond a Bachelor's degree.
Doctorate Degree A PhD degree awarded after years of study in a concentrated subject beyond a Master's Degree.
Continuing Education Units (CEU's) additional hours of training in the specific health care career are required during a specified period of time in order to maintain certification, registration or licenses
Teamwork Ability to cooperate and function well with others to accomplish a shared goal
Competence Being qualified and capable of performing a task correctly and with proper skill
Tact Knowing the most appropriate and thoughtful thing to say or way to act in a sensitive situation
Empathy Being able to identify with and understand another person's feelings and situation
Enthusiasm Enjoyment in your work and having a positive attitude and energy
Resposibility Willingness to be held accountable for your actions
Honesty truthfulness, integrity, willingness to admit mistakes
Subjective Observation / Symptoms An observation that can NOT be made using the 5 senses or measured objectively. (Ex: Nausea, Pain, Dizziness, etc)
Objective Observation / Signs An observation that CAN be made using the 5 senses and can be measured. (Ex: Temperature, Blood Pressure)
Physical Barriers to Communication Deafness, Blindness, Aphasia. (Do not confuse with Psychological barriers!)
Psychological Barriers to Communication Judgmental attitude, Negative attitude, Bias, Stereotyping; Prejudice
Cultural Barriers to Communication Religious beliefs, Language differences, Eye contact, Touch,
Elements of Communication Sender Message Receiver Feedback (Verbal & nonverbal)
Uniform Clean Well-fitting Appropriate for specific role Photo ID with Title
Shoes Low heel Supportive Closed toe Non-absorbent material No laces (preferably)
Personal Hygiene Controlled Body Odor Daily shower Use of deoderant No strong perfumes, scents, lotions, etc.
Nails Short Clean No dark or bright nail polish No artificial nails
Battery Putting your hands on another person without their consent
Assault Verbal threat of harm
Libel Written defamation
Slander Spoken defamation
Malpractice Practicing health care poorly and not up to expected standards
Negligence Failure to give expected care
Invasion of Privacy Unnecessary exposure of an individual
False Imprisonment Restraining or restricting an individual without necessity or authorization
Consent Permission to do something
Implied Consent Permission that is understood without verbally or written terms
Expressed Consent Permission stated in distinct, clear terms, either written or verbal
Informed Consent Permission that is granted by a person of sound mind after being instructed about the terms specifically, given the risks and alternatives.
Privileged Information All information given to a health care professional by a patient that must be kept confidential. It may only be shared with other members of the health care team caring for the patient. (Need-to-know basis)
Exemptions for Privileged Information Births Deaths Abuse Drugs Injuries as a result of a Crime Certain Communicable disease that pose a threat to community health (STD's, Coronavirus, Measles, etc.)
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) Oversees the quality of care in nursing homes by setting forth federal standards of how care should be provided to residents.
Health Information Technology for Economic & Clinical Health Act (HITECH) Addresses the issues surrounding protection of the electronic health record (EHR)
Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) Ensures patients are informed of their rights and have the opportunity to be a part of their own health care team and have a say in the care they receive. A right to: Advanced Directives DNR Refuse Care
Living Will A type of Advanced Directive legal document that states what measures should be taken or not taken to prolong life
Power of Attorney (POA) A type of Advanced Directive legal document that appoints another person (an agent) to make decisions regarding your (the principal) care in the event you can no longer do so for yourself
Affordable Care Act Also known as Obamacare. A federal law meant to make health insurance accessible to more Americans. Got rid of the Pre-existing conditions clauses of the past. Established an online market exchange to "shop and compare" insurance plans.
Scope of Practice the procedures, processes and actions that health care providers are legally permitted to perform in keeping with their professional license, certification or registration.
Tort A wrongful act against another that leads to harm and legal action.
Civil Law a focus on legal relationships and the protection of rights; Violations usually result in fines or monetary payouts. Most common type of cases in health care.
Criminal Law A focus on crimes, illegal activities. Violations may result in jail or prison time.
EHR Electronic Health Record (a patient's computerized medical chart)
DNR Do Not Resuscitate Patient's refusal of care in the event they stop breathing or their heart stops. Can be part of an Advanced Directive
Culture Values, beliefs, attitudes, language, symbols, rituals, behaviors, customs unique to a particular group of people that is passed down from generation to generation
Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned. Culture is Shared. Culture is Social. Culture is Dynamic (Continually changing)
Jehovah's Witness A Christian religion in which blood transfusions are not permitted
Judaism (Jewish) A religion in which the Sabbath is strictly observed. Kosher diet required. (No mixture of meat & dairy) Body is ritually cleansed after death
Catholicism Christian religion in which abortion is not permitted even as a life-saving measure. No birth control. No fish on Fridays. Anointing of the sick and Last Rites by a priest before death
Hinduism The cow is sacred (they do not eat beef) Only family members may touch, wash the body.
Islam / Muslim Only family can touch / wash the body after death. May refuse narcotic medications. Pray multiple times a day facing Mecca (East) Strict fasting during Ramadan (holiday holiday)
kilogram Unit of measure for weight. Used to measure weight of patients. Equal to 2.2 lbs Divide patient's weight in lbs by 2.2 to get their weight in kg. Important because we base medication dosages based upon weight!
mL (or cc) Unit of measure for volume. Used when measuring patient Intake & Output (I&O's) to monitor fluid balance! 1 ounce = 30 mL mL = cc
Head of Bed Positions in Angles High Fowlers = 90 degrees Mid Fowlers = 45 degrees Low (Semi) Fowlers = 30 degrees
Acculturation The process of learning the beliefs and behaviors of a dominant culture, assuming some of those characteristics and behaviors, while still maintaining one's own cultural practices.
Created by: dgibsonRN
 

 



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