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Chap 10 A&P Brain

The Human Body in health and Illness / Nervous System: Nervous tissue and Brain

QuestionAnswer
The largest part of the brain; divided into right and left hemispheres Cerebrum
The cerebral hemispheres are joined together by bands of white matter that form a large fiber tract called Corpus Callosum
A thin layer of grey matter forms the outermost portion of the cerebrum; it is composed primarily of cellbodies and interneurons Cerebral Cortex
The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations called Convolutions/Gyri (gyrus-singular)
Gyri are separated by grooves called Sulci (sulcus-singular)
A deep sulcus is called Fissure
Separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe and the precentral and postcentral gyri Central Sulcus
Located in the frontal lobe, directly in front of the central sulcus Precentral gyrus
Located in the parietal lobe, directly behind the central sulcus Postcentral gyrus
Separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes Lateral Fissure
Separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres Longitudinal Fissures
Located in the front of the cranium under the frontal bone; controls voluntary motor activity , personality development ' emotional and behavioral expression ' performance of high level task , motor speech Frontal Lobe
Where nerve impulses originate; controlling voluntary muscle movement Primary Motor Cortex (precentral gyrus)
The part of the frontal lobe/left hemisphere concerned with motor speech is called Brocas Area
Above the Brocas area is an area called the Frontal eye field
Located behind the central sulcus is the Partietal Lobe
Primarily concerned with receiving general sensory information from the body (skin/muscles) temp, pain, light touch, proprioception Primary Somatosensory area (postcentral gyrus)
Located inferior to the lateral fissure in an area just above the ear Temporal Lobe
The area that allows you to hear Primary auditory cortex
Sensory information from the nose; controls smell Olfactory Area
Broad region that is located in the parietal and temporal lobes; controls translation of thoughts into words Wernicke's Area
Located in the back if the head, Underlying the occipital bone Occipital Lobe
Sensory Fibers from the eye send information to the Visual Cortex
Helps regulate body movement and facial expressions ; The neurotransmitter dopamine is largely responsible for the activity of the Basal Nuclei
A deficiency in dopamine within the basal nuclei is called Parkinsons disease
The second main area of the brain, located beneath the cerebrum and above the brain stem Diencephalon
Serves as a relay station for most of the sensory fibers traveling from the lower brain and spinal cord region to the sensory areas of the cerebrum Thalamus
Directly below the thalamus and helps regulate body processes like body temp, water balance, and metabolism Hypothalamus
Located in the hypothalmus ; directly or indirectly affects almost every hormone in the body Pituitary gland
Connects the spinal cord with the higher brain structures Brain Stem
Extends from the lower diencephalon to the pons; relays sensory and motor information Midbrain
Extends from the midbrain to medulla oblongata; composed of tracts that act like a bridge for information, play an important role in regulation of breathing rate and rhythm Pons
Connects the spinal cord with the Pons; controls the vomiting center and is often called the vital center Medulla Oblongata
It is the structure that protrudes from under the occipital lobe at the base of the skull; concerned primarily with coordination Cerebellum
Parts of the cerebrum and the diencephalon form a wishbone shaped group of structures ; functions emotional states and behavior Limbic System
Extending through the entire brain stem with numerous connections to the cerebral cortex is a special mass of gray matter; concerned with the sleep-wake cycle and consciousness Reticular formation
The four stages of___________ sleep progress from light to deep NREM
Totals about 90 to 120 mins pre night; characterized by fluctuating BP, Respiratory rate and rhythm, and pulse rate most obviously characterized by rapid eye movements REM
The ability to recall thoughts and images Memory
The CNS is protected by bone. The brain is encased in the Cranium
The spinal cord is encased in the Vertebral Column
Three layers of connective tissue surround the brain and spinal cord called Meninges
The outermost layer of meninges is a thick, tough connective tissue called Dura Mater
Beneath the duramater is a small space called Subdural space
The middle layer of the meninges; looks like a spiderweb Arachnoid
The innermost layer of the meninges; means soft , or gentle mother; very thin membrane that contains many blood vessels and lies delicately over the brain and spinal cord Pia Matter
Between the arachnoid layer and the pia matter is a space called Subarachnoid space
Circulates within the subarachnoid space; forms a cushion around the brain and spinal cord and delivers nutrients to the CNS and removes waste Cerebrospinal Fluid
When the meninges become inflamed or infected Meningitis
The CSF is composed of __________, __________, __________, and _________ _________ (Na+)(Ci-) Water, Glucose, Protein, and Several Ions
An adult circulates about ________ml of CSF (500ml is formed every 24hrs, Replaced every 8hrs) 130
CSF is formed within the ventricles of the brain by a structure called the Choroid pexus
An arrangement of cells, particularly the glial astrocytes, associated with the blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord Blood-Brain barrier
Fingerlike structures that project into the dural sinuses to allow drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid Arachnoid villi
Created by: dhollan127