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CBIC study notes

Presence of microorganisms in or on a host with growth, but without tissue invastion or damage. Colonization
Entry of an infectious agent in the tissues of the host which multiplies and creates symptoms. Infection
Presence of mircroorganisms on inamimate objects, skin, or in substances Contamination
Ability to cause disease Pathogenicity
Ability to enter and grow in a host Invasiveness
Number of organisms needed for infection to occur Infectious dose
Measure of the ability to cause disease Virulence
Habitat where an infectious agent lives, multiplies and or grows Reservoir
Inanimate object on which organisms can survive for a period of time Fomite
Used because bacteria are cololess and usually invisible to light microscopy. Allows clinicians to determine the shape of organisms Gram stain
Stain= purple Gram positive
Stain= red Gram Negative
Used to differentiate between streptococci and Staphylococci Catalase test
Catalase positive Staphlococci
Catalase Negative Streptococci
Used to differentiate Staph Areus and Staph Epi Coagulase test
Coagulase positive Staph areus
Coagulase negative Not Staph areus
Bacteria classification is based on Morphology (Cocci vs. bacilli or rods)Gram stain characteristicsOxygen utilization
Must have oxygen to survive Aerobic
Does not need oxygen to survive Anaerobic
Four groups of bacteria gram+ cocciGram + bacilliGram - cocciGram - bacilli
Gram + Cocci Staphylococcus areus and epidermisStreptococcusEnterococcus
Gram + Bacilli BacillusListeriaClostridium
Gram - Cocci Neisseria MeningitidisNeisseria GonorrheaeMoxaxella catarrhalis
Gram - Bacilli KlebsiellaProteusMorganellaE coliSalmonellaCitrobacterEnterobacterShigellaPseudomonasAcinetobacter
First reacting antibody or immunoglobulin to be produced to fight off infection. Present in a current active infection. This is what is looked for on titers IgM
Mature already formed late occuring immunoglobulin of an immune response longest lived IgG
Form own antibody Active immunity
Get antibody from an outside source Passive immunity
Immediate immunity / B cell produces antibodies/ circulating always ready to go Humoral immunity
T cells produce lymphokines/ dont have material already there Delayed hypersensitivity.
First cells to arrive at an inflammatory focus Neutrophils
Induce allergic inflammatory response Basophils
Important in hypersensitivity Eosonophils
Staphylococcus Gram + cocci, appear in clusters under the microscope.Aureus- coagulase + 20-30% of population carry this bacteria. Common cause of skin infectionsEpidermidis- Coagulase -. Common contaminant of blood cultures of common pathogen in prosthetic devices.
Enterococcus Gram + cocci appear often in pairsFeacalis seen in 90-95% of isolates found in GI tract.Faecium seen in 5-10% of isolates. Found in GI tract.
Streptococcus Gram + Cocci appear in chainsPneumoniae also known as pneumococcusPyogenes AKA group A- Necrotizing fascitis and strep throat
Clostridium Gram + rod/ spore forming/ anaerobic
Antimicrobial therapy initiated when no information about causitive pathogen is known, patient is sufficiently ill to warrant treatment before C&S tests are available or clinical site of infection may give an indication of likely pathogen Empiric
Antimicrobial therapy initiated because infecting agent is known, susceptibility tests have been done, and appropriate antimicrobial dosage are known Therapeutic
Used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) Broth dilution
The least amount of antimicrobial agent that inhibits the microbe MIC
Standard lawn of bacteria is placed on agar media/ reported as susceptible, intermidiate or resistant/ Paper disk impregnated with standard amount of antibiotic placed on agar surface/ zone of inhibition around disk measured at 16-24 hours dep on organism Disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer)
Computer assisted manual overnight broth dilution test system/ semiautomated overnight broth microdilution test system Instrument based susceptibilty testing (Vitek or walkaway)
Anthrax Acute bacterial disease usually affecting the skinDiagnostic tesing blood, lesions or discharges by direct polychrome methylene blue stained smears or culturesIncubation period- hours to 7 days most w/n 48 hoursIsolation contactTx- Cipro, PCN,
Aspergillosis Bronchial damage and intermittent bronchial pluggingDiagnostic testing- intradermal or scratch test/ culture of sputum/ fungus balls in lungs.Incubation- few days to weeksTx- corticosteriod/ surgical resection/ fungizone.
Hep A Jaundice fatigue abdominal pain loss of appetitie nausea diarrheaTransmission- fecal-oral food/waterborne outbreaks
Diagnosic testing for Hep A Anti HAV IgM is the antibody that appears during the acute illness and declines over 6-12 monthsAnti HAV IgG rises later than IgM but persists indefinately and is belived to provide lifelong immunity after natural infection
Diagnostic testing for Hep B HVsAG is an outer surface component of HBV that serves as a marker for ongoing infection/ found in serum 1 to 2 months. Persistance beyond 6 months will indicate chronic infection/ HBc IgM is the first antibody detected
Diagnostic testing for Hep C Anti- HCV can be detected between 4 and 24 hours after onset of illness but maybe persistant for up to a year.
Resistant to PCNs and Cephalosporins ESBLs
Fever Fever may be absent in 30% of the elderly even in the presence of infection
Sputum specimen Should have few epithelia cells
The agent responsible for lyme disease Spirochete- borreli burgdoferi
Hospital grade disinfectants are tested for effectiveness against which organisms? Pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella, and MRSA
Recording and analyzing all medication administration errors from April 1 to April 30th on an internal medicine ward is an example of what kind of study? Incidence
Starts with a healthy populations and follows them to measure develpment of disease and levels of exposure to possible risk factors Cohort study
Neither the subject nor the Principle Investigator are aware of the treatment regimen being given to the subject Double blind study
Failure to reject a false null hypothesis is called a Beta or type 2 error
Which test is appropriate for use in compairing your BSI rates to published CDC/NHSN BSI rates? Ztest
The fishers exact test should be used instead of the Chi-square test for analysis of case-control findings when 2x2 tables in which any given cell value is expected to be less than 5
When delegating a project to an associate, you should Delegate the whole task, specify results desired, and have associate repeat the project expectations to you
A budget in which you detail by category every expenditure that you plan for the next year Zero-based budget
In an operating room related outbreak, there is a serious morbidity and one death. You need to close the OR for a while. This managmement style would be Consultative
Contemporary management theories include Linear theoryContingency theorySystems theory
Takes into account all aspects of the situation Contigency theory
The major focus on the annual infection control activities report should be The impact of the program on patient outcomes
Surveillance is used for monitoring outcomes and processes for quality management, identify problem areas for improvement, and to provide a baseline for comparison purposes.
What type of study measures incidence? Cohort.
An outbreak of disease that extends into several countries or continents is called a Pandemic
Which immunoglobulin indicates a recent or active infection? IgM
Rapid diagnosis of RSV, adenovirus, and influenza can be acheived by using PCR
Scabies without previous exposure has an icubation period of 2-6 weeks
Scabies incubation period for people who have previously had scabies is 1-4 days
The most important vaccine for a patient who has had their spleen removed is the pneumococcal
Immunity to infectious disease of an adequate number or individuals in a population to be protective for those who are not immune to the disease is considered Herd immunity
The type of surveillance that begins with results then looks at risk factors is Outcome surveillance
The probability of not rejecting a false null hypothesis is considered a Type II error
According to the Spaulding Classification system a laryngscope blade should be disinfected by what method? Cleaning followed by HLD
The characteristic smell of diarrhea associated with C diff is the result of Dead white blood cells
Before and after teaching a class if the ICP administers a pre-test and post-test which learning is being measured? Cognitive
The test designed to challenge the vacuum pump in a pre-vaccuum steam sterilizer is the Bowie Dick test
What can be used for both antisepsis and disinfection Iodophors
Phenoics may be used for disinfection in all areas except Nurseries
When processing implantable devices, and ETO sterilzer should be monitored with commercial preparations of Bacillus atrophaeus in every load
Gives you the most evidence that your instruments are sterile Biological
Heat and moisture senstive items are best sterilized by Ethylene oxide
What percentage of microorgansisms is harmful to humans because they grow at room temperature 1%
When persons in a disease outbreak are described, what characteristics are included Dates of symptomsPerson, place and time,surveillance
Gram stains classify an organism as Gram positive or Gram negative. This allows for early identification of suspected organisms for the treatment of Bacteria
the study of the relationship of the various factors determining the frequency and distribution of disease in a human community epidemiology
This system has mechanisms which allow the body to recognize and to neutralize or eliminate microorganisms immune system
Natural acquired active immunity develops from Resolved infections
An organism that lives upon, or within another organism and at whose expense, obtains some advantage viruses
The TB skin test depends on which functioning immune system cellular
An obligate intracellular parasite that requires a living host cells to grow and reproduce virus
Common causes of infections particularly in patients with altered immune systems fungi
Which immune marker represents present exposure to disease IgM
Air flow in health care should always go from clean to dirty
bacteria may appear in three shapes Spherical cocci, rod like bacillia, and spiral
Higher morbidity rates in chronic HBV carriers are associated with a coinfection of Hepatitis D
The determinant factors for gram stains are cell wall components of peptidoglycans
An example of an obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium would be an organism responsible for Q fever and epidemic typhys
When talking about AFB specimens, _____________identify the AFB, and ____________ identify the species smears and cultures
can grow in the small bowel and cause diarrhea in children and travelers diarrhea through the production of enterotoxins E coli
Depletion of ____________ provide the best indication of susceptibility to most bacterial infections neutrophils
The most common bacterial infection of vascular access site is staphlococcus aureus
A gram stain of a sputum specimen that contains polymorhonuclocytes (PMNs) indicates that it should be cultured
Positive antibodies to HIV shows up in 1-3 months
The causitive organism of lyme disease is a spirochete
greater than 80% lymphocytes in a CSF specimen with no organisms seen in usually indicative of meningitis caused by mycobacteria
Seen in throat cultures streptococcus pyrogenes
_______________is the biological indicator used for steam high temp sterilization, PPO, Liquid paracetic acid G. stearotheromophilus
used for steam sterilization low temp b. stubtilis
used for gas, plasma hydrogen peroxide b subtilisbaringer
used for ETO and dry heat b atrophaleus
Usual or expected occurance of the disease or the baseline endemic
increased occurance of the disease above the usual or expected frequency. An outbreak epidemic
epidemic that involves large geographical areas or several continents Pandemic
Reistance of a group to invasion and spread of an infectious agent Herd immunity
number of cases of a disease exsisting in a population at a point in time Prevalence
number of new cases of a disease in a population over a period of time incidence
measure of the frequency of death in a defined population during a specified time mortality rate
whether what is intended to be measured is, in fact, measured validity
population at risk. Example patient days Incidence rate
Example is device days Exposure time
Same as the classical rate but always uses 100 as the constant Attack rate
Systematic data collection, collation, and analysis for the purpose of finding risk groups and risk factors and identifying control strategies surveillance
ability of a test (criterion) to detect a condition, if the condition is truly present. When we apply the test we only get positives Sensitivity
Ability of a test (criterion) to not detect a condition if the condition is truly not present Specificity
A group of individuals who are healthy/measure risk factors exposures over time/ look for differences in disease frequencies according to exposure levels Cohort studies
Neither the researcher nor the subject know to which treatment group the subject is assigned Double blind studies
The sum of the numbers by the total of the nubmer mean
The middle value of an ordered group of values Median
The most commonly occuring value in a data set Mode
The largest value minus the smallest value in a data set Range
The square root fo the sum of all individual values in the data set minus the average value in the data set squared divided by n minus 1 standard deviation
Normal distribution 68%, 95%, and 99%
Techniques used to numerically describe the characteristics of a population or sample descriptive statistics
techniques used to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample taken from the population Inferential statistics
probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis Apha type 1 error
Probability of not rejecting a false null hypothesis Beta type 2 error
When we know something about the population from which the sample is drawn Parametric tests
What we use to compare our data Z tests
When we make no assumptions about the characteristics of the population from which the sample was drawn. Calculates the P value directly Fishers exact test
What happens when you calculate the p value between two rates? It will tell you if they difference is statistically significant or not
What can you conclude if the p value is small? The difference is not likely to occur by chance and therefore is statistically significant.
What can you conclude if the p value is too large? The difference is likely to occur by chance and therefore it is not statistically significant
What do tables do? Summarize data and help to construct graphs and charts
What does line graphs do? Displays and monitors trends in rates or numbers over time
Bar charts Compare size or frequency of different groups
Pie chart Shows pieces of a whole
What is the first thing you need to do in investigating an outbreak? Confirm the diagnosis
Allows comparision of a set of data (observed values) to a set of theoretically generated values (expected values) in a formal way Chi-square analysis
Gives direction for additional microbiological testing methods, directs the initial selelction of antimicrobial agents, helps determine the quality of the speicimen Gram stain
In order to formulate a hypothesis on the possible cause of an outbreak, the cases should be characterized by _________________ Common time periods, medical procedures and caregivers
Can be used to evaluate the effect of a variable on outcomes to calculate an odds ratio or relative risk if each cell of the table is greater than 5 Chi squared test
The antimicrobial effects of PCN and Cephalosporins are accomplished by inhibition of the organisms cell wall synthesis
When investigating an outbreak you should characterize the cases according to Person, place, and time
A bacterial bowel pathogen that can cause diarrhea, no elevation of WBCs and severe abdominal pain Campylobacter
Describes an epidemic, is expressed as a percent, used for particular populations, and observed for a limited period of time Attack rate
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease, the study of the frequency, types and factors that influence, types of illness and/or injury in groups/ both a body of knowledge and a method of study Epidemiology
Used by the ICP and is a process which includes analysis, data collection, and correction Surveillance
Attack rate formula # of new cases/population at risk x 100
A statistical test whose resluts indicate the probability of having committed a Type I error p Value
What happens normally in standard deviation? On a normally distributed data set 99% of the value lies within 3 standard deviations from the mean
The most frequently used ratio of controls to cases to provide the best power in a case-control design study is 3:1
The Fishers exact statistical test is used when The data is small in numbers
The concluding step in an epidemiological investigation that is frequently missed is writing the report
The frequency measures most commonly used in healthcare epidemiology are Incidence rate, prevalance rate, and incidence density
Overall attack rate formula # new cases/population at riskx 100
Incidence density rate formula # new cases/exposure time (device days) x constant
Classic incidence rate # of new cases/population at risk x constant
Have been attributed to improper collection of laboratory specimens, contamination of cultures by laboratory personnel, contamination of medical devices, municipal water supplies and diinfectants, improper categorization of community acquired infections Pseudo- outbreaks
Myabe defined as the ability of a test to detect true positives (persons with the disease) when applied to a population with the disease Sensitivity
When a test has a higher specificity than sensitivity it means that a negative result will be more accurate that a positive
usually occur on the basis of transmission by a vehicle Point source epidemics
the number of new cases of a disease divided by the number at risk during a given time and multiplied by a constant Incidence rate
A study that first identifies persons with and without disease and then measures degrees of exposure to the risk factor A case control study
Defined as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of persons without the disease x 100 Specificty
Measure of dispersion that reflects the variability in values around the mean Standard deviation
If a factor and a disease appear to be related only because of a common underlying conditio but the association disappears when the condition is controlled the assocaition is Indirect
If an association is demonstrated consistently in a variety of studies it si Both consistant and reproducible
Statistical data cannot be used to prove an association, only suggest that it exists
Useful for showing two sets of data on a single graph/uses lines and points/uses a histogram A frequency polygon
The removal of all visible dust, soil, and any other foreign material Cleaning
reduction in microbial population on an inanimate object to a safe or relatively safe level Sanitizing
Process of removing disease producing microorganisms and rendering it safe for handling Decontamination
process that kills or destroys nearly all diseas producing microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores; antiseptices are used on skin and disinfectants are used on inanimate objects Disinfection
Kills vegetative bacteria, tubercle bacillus, fungi, lipid and non lipid viruses but not necessarily bacterial spores High level disinfectants
Kills most vegetative bacteria, most fungi, tubercle bacilli, and most viruses Intermediate level disinfection
Kills most vegetative bacteria some fungi, some viruses but cannot be relied on to kill resistant microorganisms such as mycobacteria or bacterial spores Low-level disinfection
Chemical that destroys microorganisms used to kill disease causing microorganisms but not bacterial spores/used on both living tissues and inanimate objects Germacide
inhibits the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill them bacteriostatic
kills bacteria bactericidal
the process by which all forms of microbial life, including bacteria, viruses, spores, and fungi are destroyed Sterilization
a chemical that either inhibits the growth of microorganisms or destroys them antiseptic
A cleaning agent composed of a "surface wetting agent" which reduces the surface tension, a "builder" which is the principle cleaning agent, and a "sequestering or chelating agent" to suspend the soil Detergent
The main three organisms a cleaner needs to kill to be approved as a hospital disinfectant Psuedomonas
Critical means that it has contact with normally sterile areas such as the bloodstream
Semi critical means that it has contact with mucous membranes (except dental) non intact skin, does not penetrate surfaces
Non critical means that it has contact with intact skin
All _________items needs to be sterile critical
Stpes in the cleaning process for patient care supplies sort, soak, wask, rinse, dry or drain
Steps in the endoscope disinfection/high level after leak test clean, disinfect, rinse, dry, store
cleaning is accomplished by a vigourously agitated detergent bath in which items to be clean are immersed washer sterilization
sonic waves generate minute bubbles for gas nuclei, bubbles expand until they become unstable then collapse, the emplosion produces very localized vaccum areas that are responsible for dislodging soil from surfaces Ultrasonic cleaner
hot water wash, rinse, dry <100 for 30 30 min used for respiratory and anesthesia equipment pasteurization
used in surgical suites, burn and TB units/ kills droplet nuclei killed by UV Ultraviolet irridation
used on thermometers, stethoscopes, skin/effect against bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria and viruses alcohols
used in hydrotherapy tanks, renal dialysis equipment, CPR manikins, lavatories, pools. Effective against bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria and viruses/inactivated by organic matter/you have to get an item clean before it will work Halogens/chlorines
effectve against bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria and viruses Halogens/iodophors
Used to clean floors, walls, furnishings and equipment/effective against bacteria, fungi and viruses/has a TB claim and cannot be used in nurseries Phenolics
USed to clean walls, floors and furnishings/ broad spectrum/no TB claim Quats
High level disinfectant for medical equipment, endoscopes, RT, anesthesia equipment sterilization in 6-10 hours Aldehydes/glutraldehyde
used in the lab and has limited use formaldehyde
used for soft contact lenses, wound cleanser occasionally endoscopes broad spectrum Peroxygens/hydrogen peroxide
used for HLD sterilization of instruments Paracetic acid
Two methods of sterilization Thermal and chemical
heat and moisture sensitive items are best sterilized by Ethylene oxide
following surgery on a dirty wound, the greatest risk of infection complications is assoicated with immediate primary closure of the wound
Chemical indicators Chemically impregnated paper or strips/ pellet in glass tube/ Bowie dick test checks removal of air from the sterilizer and efficency of vacuum pump
Biological indicators spore strips bacillus stearothermophilus or Bacillus subtilis/ AAMI recommends a biological indicator be used in the first load each day but at least once a week
Testing of water used for dialysis includes chromium copper and chlorine
Takes an event or piece of information and works backwards to determin causes Fishbone diagram
A program or system for monitoring and providing safe environment for the employee and quality care for patients to reduce liability risk management
can illustrate a conncetion and association of data in a manner which assists the learner in visulaization of major issues A pie or circle map
In the ______domain the individual embraces new attitudes, values, and beliefs in the learning process Affective
the method of learning in which the educator provides the learner with a template or prescription for learning Outcome based education
The first step in preparation of any education program is assessing the educational needs of the learning population
used to determine the interests and readiness of the group to learn needs assessment
Actions that determine the specific actions the learner will perform Instruction objective
This domain has recall, application and analytical levels of knowledge; involves the development of intellectual abilities Cognitive domain
The domain is where learning embraces new attitudes, values, beliefs and ways of feeling; self esteem and desired to learn grows in caring respectful relationships Affective domain
This domain is where you are learning new skills or new wyas of acting or doing Psychomotor
Studies that characterize a population by occurance of an outcome by time, place, or person; includes case reports and case studies Descriptive studies
Studies that compare individuals with and without an outcome with the presence of one or more risk factors Analytic studies
Studies where outcome and risk factors reviewed in a population group at one poin in time; outcomes measured Cross-sectional study
population of individuals with and without an outcome of interest studied for exposure to one or more risk factos; studies are quicker, less expensive and easier Case-control study
A study that starts with a sample of individuals with and without exposure to a potential risk factor and are followed for incidence of the outcome in each group; can be done retrospectively; less patient selection bias; stronger evidence of causual assoc Cohort study
In adult learning the role of the educator should be Facilitator of learning
A process of transforming new knowledge, insights, skills and values into behavior, usually involves conflict and resitance, linking new knowledge to what is already known; involving a decision to change before learning can occur Learning
recall or recognition of knowledge involving the acqusition of new abilities Cognitive learning
The art and science of helping adults to learn Androgogy
teaching a strategy that provides situational learning experiences close to real situations Simulation
the originator of client-centered thearpy and the humanistic school learning theory Carl Rogers
Assists the learner to develop the skills of classifying and organizing infromation A tree map
a methond in which the educator provides the learner with a rubic or presentation for learning Outcome based
What three categories do adult learners generally fall into? Goal orientedActivity orientedlearning oriented
conducted during the educational session to provide immediate feedback and allow for changes to be made Formative evaluation
Occurs after the program is complete to judge effectiveness Summative evaluation
Can be used to study peoples perceptions and experiences The qualitative research process
A major difference between a prospective and a retrospective study is that the prospective study may require a long follow-up period
An advantage of a case-control study over a cohort study is a case control study is less time consuming and less expensive
Analysis of quantitative research may be used to suggest an association
A critically important aspect of a clinical trial is to ensure that participants and investigators do not affect the outcome by biases
A study that characterizes populations by time, person, and place A descriptive study
Work restrictions for Conjuctivitis Restrict from patient contact unitl discharge ceases
Work restrictions for cytomegalovirus No restrictions
Work restrictions for diarrhea Restrict from patient contact or food handling until symptoms resolve
Work restrictions for salmonella Restrict from care of high risk patients until symptoms resolve
Work restrictions for Diptheria Exclude from duty until antimicrobial therapy is completed and two negaive cultures 24 hours apart
Work restrictions for enteroviral infections restrict from care of infants, neonates, and immunocompromised patients until symptoms resolve
Work restrictions for Hepatitis A Restrict from patient contact or food handling until 7 days after onset of jaundice
Work restrictions for Hepatitis B Restrict from personnell who perform exposure prone procedures from duty until expert review council has been consulted, review state regulations, no restrictions for employeess who do not have exposure prone duties
Work restrictions for Hepatitis C No recommendations refer to facility and state regs
Work restrictions for Herpes simplex (genital) No restrictions
Work restrictions for Herpes simplex hands (herpatic whitlow) Restrict until lesions healed
Work restrictions for herpes simplex orofacial Restrict from high risk until lesions heal
Work restrictions for HIV Restrict personnel who perform exposure prone invasive procedures from duty until expert review council has been consulted, refer to state guidelines, no restrictions for employees who do not perform exposure prone procedures
Work restrictions for Measles Active-exclude from duty until 7 days after rash appearsPost exposure- exclude from duty from day 5 through day 21 after last exposure and 7 days after rash appears
Work restrictions for meningococcal infection exclude from duty until 24 hours after start of effective therapy
Work restrictions for mumps Active- exclude from duty until 9 days after onset of parotitisPost exposure- exclude from duty from 12th day after exposure through 26th day after exposure or until 9 days after the onset of parotitis
Work restrictions for lice Restrict from patient contact until treated and observed to be free of adult and immature lice
Work restrictions for pertussis Exclude from dutly from beginning of catarrhal state through thrid week after onset of paroxyms or until 5 days after start of effective antimicrobialPost exposure- asymptomatic no restrictions but prophylaxis therapy is recommended
Work restrictions for rubella Active exvlude from duty unitl 5 days after rash appears.Post exposure- exclude from duty from day 7 until after first exposure through day 21 after last exposure
Work restrictions for scabies Restrict from patient contact untill cleared by medical evaluation after treatment
Work restrictions for Staph Aureus Active draining lesions restrict from contact with patients or food handling Carrier state- no restrictions unless personnel are epidemiologically linked to a transmission of the organism
Work restrictions for group A streptococcal infection Restrict from patient contact or food handling until 24 hours after adequate treatment started
Immunizations for hepatitis B Two doses IM in the deltoid muscle 4 weeks apart then 3rd dose 5 mo after 2nd dose. Booster dose not necessary
Immunization for Measles live One dose SC; 2nd dose at least one month after
Immuniation for Mumps live One dose SC; no booster
Immunization for Rubella One dose SC; No booster
Immunization for Varicella Zoster Two 0.5 doses SC 4-8 week apart if >13 years
Immunization for tetanus and Diptheria Two doses IM 4 week apart/ 3rd dose 6-12 months after 2nd dose and booster every 10 years
Prophylaxis for Diptheria Benzathine PCN or Erythromycin 1gm/day for 7 days
Prophylaxis for Hepatitis A One IM dose IG 0.02 ml/kg given within 2 weeks of exposure in large muscle mass
Prophylaxis for Hepatitis B HBIG 0.06 ml/kg IM as soon as possible and within 7 days after exposure with first dose given at a different body site; if hepatitis B series has not been started 2nd dose of HBIG should be given 1 mo after 1st
Prophylaxis for memigococcal disease Rifampin 600mg PO every 12 hours for 2 days or Rocephin 250mg IM x 1 dose or Cipro 500 mg PO x 1 dose
Prophylaxis for pertussis Erythromycin 500mg QID PO x 14 daysBactrim PO BID x 14 daysZithromax 200mg day 1 then 250mg days 2-5
Interpretation of TB test >5mm-HIV +, recent exposure, chest x-ray old TB>10mm- High risk groups and HCWs>15mm- Persons who do not meet criteria above
During an outbreak investigation you need to define the problem, create a hypothesis, and determine common factors to help determine the cause
___________is highly sensitive and the _____________ is more specific when giving HIV results Elisa test and Western blot
Helpful in formulating a hypothesis on the sources and mode of transmission of an outbreak Epidemic curve
Serum that is positive for HBeAG idicates an increase likelyhood of infectivity
Biological indicators should be performed at least Weekly
_____________is the biological indicator used for monitoring steam sterilization Geobacillus Stearothermophilus
Influenza vaccination rates in helathcare personnel is an example of a _____________indicator process
The usual time period between exposure to hepatitis B and the onset of symptoms is 8 to 10 days
Employees with TST/PPD conversions should be categorized according to date of conversion, assigned work site, and job category
_______________allow the learner to increase knowledge independently or in small group situations Self instructional modules
In diagnostic testing for Hepatitis A ________is the antibody that appears during the acute illness and declines over 6-12 months. _________________rises later that IgM but persits indefinetly and is believed to be reponsible for lifelong immunity anti-HAV Igm; Anti-HAV IgG
In diagonsitic testing for HEP B ___________is an outer surface antigen that serves as a marker for ongoing infection HBsAG
HBsAG is found in the serum ____________after exposure 1-2 months
If HBsAG is found in serum 6 months after exposure it indicates chronic infection
___________________the first antibody detected when testing for Hepatitis B and usually appears at the same time as symptoms begins HBc IgM
In testing for Hepatitis B __________persists for life and serves as a marker for previous natural HBV infection anti-HBc IgG
For adult learners, learning is often motivated by job needs, such as the need for new skills or the desire for promotion and increased salaray
The leader provides specific direction regarding what is to be done, when, and by whom. The educator determins the process and the content of the decision making Autocratic style
The leader participates in the group as a contributor and as a facilitator of the decision-making process. Essentially a persuasive equal, the educator provides direction but acknowledges and encourages the willingness of the members to work with the educ democratic style
the leader promotes cohesion, open sharing, and collaboration among the group memebers but does not interfere or influence the decision making or direction of the process. The educator may withdraw his or her own opinions and ideas and serves to clarify encouraging and socializing style
the educator allows the members to determine the direction of the learning. The educator tells the members of the group the nature of the task and then removes themself from involvement. A hands off style
The presence of which antibodies to hepatitis A confirms the diagnosis of acute hepatitis A IgM
In investigating an epidemic, cases should be categorized according to time, place, and person
A student demonstrates appropriate tacheostomy suctioning technique to an instructor. This is an example of Psychomotor learning
Created by: wvarnmsn
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