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Diabetes mellitus type 1 cause: unknown Symptoms: polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, blurry vision, weight loss, elevated blood glucose
Diabetes mellitus type 2 cause: obesity, inactivity, genetics Symptoms: polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, elevated blood glucose
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes; unknown Symptoms: irregular menstrual cycles, elevated hormone levels, multiple cysts on ovaries
hypothyroidism causes: autoimmune disease, medications, thyroid surgery Symptoms: fatigue, weight gain, muscle aches, bradycardia, depression, elevated cholesterol, dry skin
hyperthyroidism causes: graves disease, thyroiditis, plummer's disease Symptoms: weight loss, tachycardia, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disruption, goiter
Diabetes type 1 treatment insulin therapy
diabetes type 2 treatment diet modification, exercise, medication, insulin therapy
PCOS treatment weight loss, estrogen and progestin
hypothyroidism treatment synthetic thyroid hormone medication, levothyroxine (Synthroid)
hyperthyroidism treatment radioactive iodine, antithyroid medication, beta blockers, thyroidectomy
basal cell carcinoma (BCC) causes: light/fair skin, sun exposure Symptoms: new growth or sore that does not heal
Squamous cell carcinoma causes: light/fair skin, sun exposure, less common than BCC Symptoms: spreads to surrounding tissue, most common on face and head
malignant melanoma causes: light/fair skin, sun exposure Symptoms: itchy/bleeding mole, new mole, mole with changes
BCC treatment curettage and electrodessication, mohs surgery, cryosurgery, laser therapy
Squamous cell carcinoma treatment same for BCC
malignant melanoma treatment depends on stage of legion, surgery, lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy
curettage the removal of tissue or growths from a body cavity, such as the uterus, by scraping with a curette
electrodessication the drying of tissue by a high-frequency electric current applied with a needle-shaped electrode.
mohs surgery a method of excising skin cancers and microscopically examining each layer until the entire tumor is removed
acne vulgaris causes: surge of sex hormones during puberty, excess sebum on the skin surface Symptoms: black heads and white heads, papules, pustules
alopecia causes: often hereditary, hormone changes, chemotherapy, stress, burns, fungal skin infections Symptoms: loss or lack of hair anywhere on the body
cellulitis causes: staphylococcal and streptococcal bacterial infections Symptoms: red, tight skin, pain in inflamed area, fever
dermatitis causes: multiple causative agents, contact with irritants symptoms: inflammation of skin resulting in rash and pruritus
eczema causes: unknown symptoms: chronic dermatitis with vesicular eruptions developing into itchy, red, scaly rash
folliculitis causes: shaving or repeated rubbing of shaved are, bacteria or fungi Symptoms: red, itchy hair follicles (pimple appearance)
herpes simplex causes: contact with herpes simplex virus Symptoms: type 1; painful blisters on lips, mouth and face. type 2; similar lesions but located on genital area
acne vulgaris treatment regular cleansing of affected area OTC benzoyl peroxide products, prescription medication
alopecia treatment no cure, hair transplants and medications can slow progression
cellulitis treatment oral/topical antibiotics, hospitalization if at risk for developing systemic infection
dermatitis treatment treatment based on cause, corticosteroid creams, oral steroids
eczema treatment topical or systemic steroids, NSAIDs for discomfort
folliculitis treatment regular cleansing of affected area, topical antibiotics, electric shaver instead of razor
herpes simplex treatment no cure, antiviral medication to decrease frequency of outbreaks
impetigo causes: staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria Symptoms: itchy, oozing, skin lesions with honey-like appearing crust
pediculosis causes: parasitic lice infestation Symptoms: skin itching, nits(eggs) in hair, particularly near roots
psoriasis inherited autoimmune disorder Symptoms: silvery scaly, severely itchy skin lesions. can cause systemic symptoms such as joint pain and inflammation
ringworm contact with causative fungus symptoms: flat, circular lesions
rosacea dilation of small facial blood vessels symptoms: redness , acne-like eruptions on face
NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication
impetigo treatment antibiotics, frequent cleansing of the area
pediculosis treatment prescription or OTC lice treatments/shampoos
psoriasis treatment oral NSAIDs, topical creams containing vitamins A and D, hydrocortisone cream, UV treatments
ringworm treatment topical and oral antifungal medication
rosacea treatment topical cortisones, antibiotics, vascular laser therapy
osteoarthritis inflammatory processes, metabolic disorders. Symptoms: joint stiffness and pain, fluid surrounding the joint, grating sound with joint movement
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune symptoms: destruction of the joint capsule causing scar tissue to form, visible joint deformity, loss of joint mobility
bursitis overuse, joint trauma, bacterial infection symptoms: joint pain and swelling
Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors cause unknown, age 10-20, male sex symptoms: fever, pain at tumor site, fractures, bruising
osteoarthritis treatment NSAIDs, intra-articular injections, arthroscopy, joint replacement surgery
rheumatoid arthritis treatment NSAIDs, exercise, heat and cold therapies, cortisone injections, surgery to remove scar tissue
bursitis treatment rest, pain medication, steroid injection, aspiration of joint fluid, antibiotics
ewing's sarcoma family of tumors treatment surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, stem cell transplant
diverticulitis causes: bacterial, viral, parasitic Symptoms: constipation or diarrhea, blood stools, abdominal pain, nausea
hemorrhoids causes: constipation, straining during bowel movements, pelvic pressure during pregnancy and childbirth symptoms: itching pain in anal area, blood with bowel movements, visible protrusion from the anus
hiatal hernia causes: unknown, smoking, obesity Symptoms: heartburn, chest pain, excessive burping, nausea and vomiting
stomach ulcer causes: bacterial infection, smoking, medication symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
diverticulitis treatment high-fiber diet, antibiotics
hemorrhoids treatment high-fiber diet, stool softeners, surgical removal
hiatal hernia treatment weight reduction, medication, surgical repair
stomach ulcer treatment antibiotics, antacid medication, surgery
gout causes: deposits of uric acid crystals accumulate in joint spaces symptoms: joint pain common in big toe and knee joints, stiffness, swelling
kyphosis causes: growth retardation or improper development of growth plates, aging and degenerative disk disease contribute to adult onset. symptoms: visible upper back curvature (humpback)
Lordosis Causes: injury, poor posture, wearing high heels symptoms: inward curvature of the lower back (swayback)
osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) hereditary symptoms: dental issues, fractures at birth, loose joints, muscle weakness, respiratory issues, blue sclera of the eye, triangle-shaped face, small stature, spinal curvature
gout treatment dietary changes, pain medication, medication to aid in elimination of uric acid in kidneys during urine formation
kyphosis treatment exercise, back bracing, Harrington rod, spinal fusion in extreme cases
lordosis treatment corrective shoes, exercise
osteogenesis treatment fracture repair, surgery with metal rodding, physical therapy, bracing
osteoporosis causes: hormone deficiencies, sedentary lifestyle, lack of vitamin D, corticosteroid use, smoking symptoms: fracture, most common in the spin, wrists, and hips, loss of height, can result in kyphosis
osteosarcoma causes: unknown symptoms: pain in affected bones, swelling with development of tumor growth
paget's disease causes: hereditary, viral symptoms: bone pain and deformity, fractures, excessive bone destruction
scoliosis causes: genetic, can begin prenatally during formation of vertebrae, muscle weakness symptoms: bent appearing spine, back pain
fibromyalgia causes: unknown, exacerbated by sloe deprivation, emotional distress, depression symptoms: fatigue, point tenderness and trigger points, chronic facial pain, sleep disturbances
osteoporosis treatment medications, hormone replacement therapy, exercise, supplements
osteosarcoma treatment surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, amputation of affected limb
paget's disease treatment surgery, medication, physical therapy
scoliosis treatment back bracing, physical therapy, surgery with rod placement
fibromyalgia treatment antidepressants, NSAIDs, physical therapy, trigger point injections
muscular dystrophy causes: hereditary symptoms: muscle weakness leading to eventual paralysis of muscle groups
myasthenia gravis causes: autoimmune symptoms: double vision, muscle weakness, dysphagia, difficulty chewing, difficulty breathing
tendonitis causes: sports or activity related symptoms: pain in joints, limited range of motion in joint
tetanus causes: toxin produced by clostridium tetani symptoms: muscle spasm in jaw and neck, dyspnea, fever, irritability, sweating and drooling
muscular dystrophy treatment physical therapy, bracing, ambulatory devices, medications
myasthenia gravis treatment avoiding excessive stress, rest, eye patch, medication
tendonitis treatment rest, ice, NSAIDs
tetanus treatment antitoxin and antibiotic medications
hypertension causes: narrowing of arteries, increased arterial pressure symptoms: excessive sweating, fatigue, muscle cramps, headaches, dizziness
angina causes: coronary artery narrowing, atherosclerosis symptoms: pain/tightness in chest
coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) causes: buildup of fat and cholesterol in arteries symptoms: usually no symptoms prior to heart attack
myocardial infarction (heart attack) causes: coronary artery blockage, atherosclerosis, blood clot Symptoms: squeezing chest pain that can radiate to shoulder/arm/neck/jaw, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, dizziness, nausea
hypertension treatment treatment of underlying cause, lifestyle modifications: diet, exercise, stress management, smoking cessation, antihypertensive medication
angina treatment sublingual nitroglycerin, treatment of underlying condition
coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) treatment lipid-lowering medications, low-fat diets, exercise, smoking cessation, coronary artery bypass grafting in severe cases
myocardial infarction treatment aspirin, CPR if unconscious, defibrillation, anticoagulant medication, immediate emergency protocol
aneurysm causes: atherosclerosis, smoking, high-cholesterol diet, obesity symptoms: usually none, possible back pain, tachycardia, dizziness
congestive heart failure (CHF) causes: smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high-cholesterol diet, hypertension Symptoms: shortness of breath, wheezing, peripheral edema in legs, irregular heartbeat
mitral valve prolapse causes: usually unknown, hereditary or related to nervous system disorders symptoms: mild cases usually have no symptoms, severe cases can have shortness of breath and palpitations
thrombophlebitis causes: prolonged periods of inactivity, hormone replacement therapy, cancer, paralysis symptoms: pain in affected area, redness, swelling
aneurysm treatment surgery
CHF treatment medications to address tachycardia, diuretic medication to treat edema, antihypertensive medications
mitral valve prolapse treatment none for mild cases, medication to treat symptoms, surgery to repair
thrombophlebitis treatment heat, compression stockings, anticoagulant medication, surgery
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) HIV virus symptoms: low T-cell counts, fever, diaphoresis, susceptibility to frequent infection, weight loss
lymphedema causes: parasitic infection, trauma, surgical removal of lymph nodes
mononucleosis causes: Epstein-barr virus, cytomegalovirus symptoms: fatigue, sore throat, fever
systemic lupus erythematosus causes: medications, bacterial infections, autoimmune symptoms: cytomegalovirus symptoms: fatigue, body pain, butterfly rash on face, headaches, nausea, hair loss, weight loss, anemia, shortness of
celiac disease causes: genetic defect, lack of enzyme that breaks down gluten, consumption of gluten triggers autoimmune reaction symptoms: weight loss, bloating, loose stools, eventual systemic organ wasting due to lack of nutrients, malabsorption
AIDS treatment no cure, antiretroviral mediation to slow progression, treatment of secondary infections with antibiotics
lymphedema treatment compression stockings, lymphedema pump, surgery
systemic lupus erythematosus treatment NSAIDs
celiac disease treatment gluten-free diet
asthma causes: allergens, pollutants, dust mites, cigarette smoke symptoms: wheezing, coughing, feeling of tightness in chest
atelectasis causes: cystic fibrosis, COPD, pleurisy, lung cancer, spontaneous symptoms: dyspnea, cyanosis, diaphoresis, pain
bronchitis causes: viral environmental pollutants, cigarette smoke symptoms: yellow-gray or green productive cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, fever
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes: smoking, environmental pollutants symptoms: dyspnea, hypoxia, fatigue, cough
emphysema causes: damage to alveoli causes by cigarette smoke, pollutants, specific types of dust symptoms: shortness of breath, chronic couch, fatigue
asthma treatment avoiding allergens/irritants, rescue inhaler for bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory steroid inhalers, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, steroid injection for an acute episode
atelectasis treatment thoracentesis, chest percussion, deep breathing exercises, intermittent positive-pressure breathing
bronchitis treatment cough medicine, humidifier. inhalers, antibiotics in some cases
COPD treatment smoking cessation, inhalers, lung transplant in extreme cases
emphysema treatment smoking cessation, avoiding cold environments, antibiotics for secondary lung infections
influenza respiratory virus symptoms: fever, muscle pain, fatigue, sore throat, rhinorrhea
legionnaires' disease legionella bacteria that grow in standing water symptoms: dyspnea, cough headache, fever
pneumonia bacterial, viral, parasitic symptoms: thick colored sputum, dyspnea, fever, cough
pulmonary edema congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, heart valve disorders, drowning, injury symptoms: orthopnea, dyspnea, wheeze, productive cough, weight gain, pallor
influenza treatment symptomatic, OTC analgesics for aches and fever, antiviral medication
legionnaires' disease treatment antibiotics, respiratory medications, oxygen, fever medication
pneumonia treatment rest, antibiotics, OTC analgesics
pulmonary edema treatment oxygen therapy, diuretics
pulmonary embolism causes: blood clot blocking an artery in the lung symptoms: dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fainting, rapid onset of shortness of breath, diaphoresis
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viral symptoms: fever, headache, dry cough
tuberculosis (TB) causes: bacterial symptoms: chronic cough, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, painful or difficulty breathing
pulmonary embolism treatment circulation support (compression hose), rest, anticoagulant medication, surgically implanted filter
SARS treatment rest, antiviral medication
TB treatment isolation if symptomatic, medication therapy for 6-12 months
Alzheimer's disease causes: degenerative brain disease, possibly genetic or environmental symptoms: confusion, memory loss, impaired judgement, personality change, worsens over time
bell's palsy unknown cause. symptoms: weakness or paralysis of facial muscles, facial numbness and drooping, headache
seizures causes: birth trauma, infections, brain injury, head trauma, drug withdrawal. symptoms: uncontrolled muscle contractions, loss of consciousness, visual disturbances
meningitis causes: bacterial, viral, fungal infection causing inflammation of the meninges. symptoms: stiff neck, headache, fever, vomiting
multiple sclerosis (MS) causes: viral, genetic, immune dysfunction. symptoms: loss of ability to speak or walk, double vision, loss of balance, weakness in arms/legs
Alzheimer's treatment no cure, physical activity, socialization, medication to slow progression
bell's palsy treatment NSAIDs, pain relievers, usually self-resolving
seizure treatment medication, brain surgery
meningitis treatment appropriate medications for type, bacterial can be fatal
MS treatment no cure, supportive, medications to slow progression
Parkinson's disease causes: lack of neurotransmitters, brain tumors, head trauma, drugs. symptoms: arm/leg muscle joint stiffness, lack of coordination, tremor
stroke causes: blockage of artery in neck or brain
migraine headache causes: hormones, stress, dietary, familial. symptoms: dull to throbbing head pain, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, vomiting, visual aura
Parkinson's treatment no cure, supportive, medications to slow progression
stroke treatment physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy
migraine treatment medications, alternative medications
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) causes: increased age, increased level of dihydrotestosterone. symptoms: feeling of full bladder after urinating, weak urine flow, needing to urine often
hydrocele causes: failure of inguinal ring to close properly in development, injury or swelling of the scrotum. symptoms: few symptoms, pain, increased size in scrotum
prostate cancer causes: unknown, genetics. symptoms: pain, erectile dysfunction, dysuria
sexually transmitted infections causes: unprotected contact with infected tissue or fluids. symptoms: varies depending on infection/disease, pelvic or penile pain, sores, itching or discharge, dysuria, body rash, infertility
BPH treatment alpha blockers, minimally invasive surgical procedures, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
hydrocele treatment surgery if symptomatic
prostate cancer treatment hormone therapy, radiation therapy, surgery, cryosurgery, chemotherapy
STIs treatment varies depending on infection, medication, cryosurgery, immunizations
endometriosis causes: unknown. symptoms: most have none, pelvic pain especially during menses, painful urination and defecation, infertility issues
pelvic inflammatory disease causes: untreated STIs/STDs, multiple sex partners, frequent douching. symptoms: lower abdominal pain, back pain, fever, rapid pulse, vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse
cervical cancer causes: particular strains of HPV. Symptoms: abnormal vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal or pelvic pain, abnormal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse
endometriosis treatment NSAIDs, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, oral contraceptives, progestins, surgical intervention
pelvic inflammatory disease treatment antibiotic treatments, surgical intervention to treat scarring
cervical cancer treatment surgical intervention, chemotherapy, radiation therapy
acute kidney failure causes: burns, dehydration, hemorrhage, low BP, trauma. symptoms: little to no urine production, swelling in extremities, mental confusion
chronic kidney disease causes: diabetes, hypertension, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease. symptoms: headache, seizures, confusion
incontinence causes: nervous system disorders, UTI, bladder cancer, prostate disorders. symptoms: involuntary urination
polycystic kidney disease causes: enlarged kidneys due to cysts, inherited. symptoms: hypertension, fatigue
pyelonephritis causes: bladder infection that spreads to the kidneys. symptoms: fatigue, fever
renal calculi causes: UTI, gout, highly concentrated urine. Symptoms: severe back or abdominal pain, fever, nausea, urgency
acute kidney failure treatment increase dietary protein, fluid and potassium intake regulation, dialysis
chronic kidney disease treatment antibiotics, blood transfusion, control of BP, dialysis, kidney transplant
incontinence treatment medication, surgical removal of the prostate, Kegel exercises, surgery
polycystic kidney disease treatment medication, draining of cysts, surgical removal of kidney
pyelonephritis treatment antibiotics
renal calculi treatment medication, surgery, lithotripsy
appendicitis causes: idiopathic, inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms: RLQ pain, loss of appetite, nausea
cirrhosis causes: scarring of liver, can be autoimmune, medication, alcohol, hepatitis B or C. symptoms: anemia, fatigue, fever, enlarged liver, jaundice, weight loss
cholelithiasis (gallstones) causes: insoluble cholesterol and bile salt. Symptoms: can be asymptomatic, radiating RUQ pain, fever, nausea, vomiting
colitis causes: viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating
constipation causes: inactivity, lack of fiber and water in diet, medications. Symptoms: bloating, abdominal pain, hard feces
Crohn's disease causes: inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune. Symptoms: fever, joint pain, tender gums, abnormal abdominal sounds, constipation or diarrhea, intestinal bleeding.
appendicitis treatment antibiotics, appendectomy
cirrhosis treatment avoid alcohol consumption, antibiotics, diuretics
cholelithiasis treatment laparoscopic cholecystectomy, lithotripsy
constipation treatment increased dietary fiber and water, physical activity
Crohn's disease treatment dietary changes, antibiotics, surgery
Created by: elshalance
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