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Medical Science I

Questions and Answers

Catherine injured her ankle while ice skating. Her X-ray shows no signs of bone abnormality but her doctor feels she has damaged ligaments. Catherine's diagnosis is a: Sprain.
Poor posture can cause the lumbar spine to become "swaybacked." The medical term for this condition is: Lordosis.
During a fall from a tree, Tiny Tim fractured his tibia, and the bone broke through the skin. This type of fracture is known as a: Compound (open) Fracture.
DeJohn has a compound fracture of the femur. What type of corrective treatment would MOST LIKELY be used? Open reduction and internal fixation.
During a routine school checkup, it is noted that Susan's spine is curved from side to side. This is called: Scoliosis.
Abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine causes a "hunchback" appearance. This disorder is known as: Kyphosis.
A tree falls on Ryan's leg causing a fracture tha is broken into many pieces. What type of fracture does Ryan have? Comminuted.
Connective tissue supports organs and other body parts. Two examples of connective tissue are: Cartilage and adipose tissue.
If you move from a sitting to a standing posistion, what type of joint movement occurs at the knee? Extension.
As LaRhonda ages her bones will become more porous, lose calcium and phosphorous and are more likely to fracture. This condition is called: Osteoporosis.
What is formed when cells are grouped because they are similar in shape, size, structure and function? Tissue.
Pierre has been diagnosed with a greenstick fracture of his radius and ulna. What can you assume about Pierre? He is a child.
An elderly man tells you he has severe pain in his great toe, but denies any trauma to the toe. His pain is most likely caused by: Gout.
For two years, a child is given a diet that lacked Vitamin D. What disorders would most likely develop? Osteomalacia and Rickets.
Lisa fell out of a tree and broke her clavicle. This bone injury is called a: Dislocation.
Mrs. Jones suffers from painful inflammation of her joints. This condition is known as: Arthritis.
The main reason for applying a cast around a fracture is to: Decrease inflammation.
In relationship to the rest of the body, the arms would be described to be in a: Lateral position.
What region is located between the hypochondriac regions? Epigastric.
What lower arm bone is located on the thumb side of the hand? Ulna.
A patient had a closed reduction of a fractured tibia. You would expect the patient to have: A cast.
The cranial bones include the parietal, temporal, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and: Occipital.
The medical term for the finger bones is: Phalanges.
The fluid that reduces the friction during joint movement is: Synovial fluid.
The process of blood cell formation in the red bone marrow of bones is called: Hemolysis.
The prefix "post" means: After.
Dense bone is called compact bone and porous bone is called: Spongy bone.
One function of the skeletal system is the storage of: Calcium.
Chewing involvles the use of which movable skull bone: Mandible.
The areas where cranial bones join together to form immovable joints are called: Sutures.
The prefix "mal" means: Bad.
What type of joint allows the greatest freedom of movement? Ball-and-socket joints.
What type of movement occurs when you turn your head from side to side to say "no"? Pronation.
Which of the following is the most complex? Stomach.
The medical term for the knee-cap is the: Patella.
The outer covering of the bone is the: Periosteum.
The largest bone in the body is the: Femur.
Another name for the breast bone is the: Sternum.
The shaft of a long is called the: Diaphysis.
Bones of the skull, spine and chest make up the: Axial skeleton.
Which bone is part of the pelvis? Femur.
Bones are composed of microscopic cells called: Osteocytes.
The suffix "penia" means: Deficiency.
If you are doing "jumping jacks", your arms and legs are: Abducting and adducting.
What bone in the forearm is connected to the humerus? Ulna.
An infection of the bone, usually originating in the skin is called: Osteomyelitis.
This section of the sternum can be broken off if CPR is not done correctly: Xiphoid.
An example of an autoimmune disorder is: Rheumatoid arthritis.
What lining surrounds the medullary cavity? Endometreum.
John has been diagnosed with an osteosarcoma. His doctor states that he will have to have a/an: External fixators.
A swimmer strains her shoulder during a race. What is the first thing that should be done, and why? Apply ice to stop the bleeding and reduce swelling.
If muscle cells are stimulated repeatedly without adequate periods of rest, lactic acid accumulates, and the muscle will lose its ability to contract. This is known as muscle: Fatigue.
In what group of diseases do muscle cells degenerate, and the most common is the Duchenne type? Muscular dystrophy.
Debbie has a weakness in the abdominal muscle around her naval causing part of her instestine to protrude through the weakened area. This condition is called a: Hernia.
The muscle that abducts the upper arm at the shoulder joint is the: Deltoid.
What are two of the functions of the muscular system? Determines posture and produces body heat.
Special circular muscles in the openings between the esophagus and stomach are called: Sphincter muscles.
A mother brings her baby to the health department. The baby has vesicles that rupture and develop yellow crust. These symptoms MOST LIKELY indicate: Impetigo.
Shang complains of pain in the front of his lower leg after running five miles. He is most likely experiencing: Shin splints.
Ling complains of waking up in the middle of the night with severe calf pain. What is the most likely cause of Ling's pain? Muscle spasm.
What type of fluid is contained in the double-walled membrane that lines closed body cavities? Serous fluid.
What type of burn involves complete destruction of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer? Third degree.
Muscles that are partially contracted at all times are said to be in a constant state of readiness called muscle: Tone.
The dome-shaped muscle separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities which aids in breathing is the: Diaphragm.
When the nerve impulse reaches the end of the axon, what chemical neurotransmitter is released? Acetylcholine.
What is a tear in a muscle as a result of excessive use that results in minimal bleeding inside the muscle, pain and swelling? Strain.
Dr Schultz diagnosed Mrs. Faw's pain in her shoulder as inflammation of a tendon. This condition is called: Tendonitis.
When a person has acne, oily deposits harden and pores become plugged. When the secretions cannot escape, they fill with: Leukocytes.
What statement about Athlete's Foot is true? It is contagious.
When a muscle becomes shorter and thicker and causes movement, it is said to have: Contractability.
Which kind of muscle forms the walls of the heart? Cardiac.
Muscles are responsible for producing most of our: Body Heat.
Muscles are able to return to their original shape when they relax. This characteristic is called: Elasticity.
If we fail to exercise, our muscles become weak, flaccid, and will: Atrophy.
What region is located between the hypochondriac regions? Epigastric.
What region is located on either side of the umbilical region? Right and left lumbar.
The outer part of a serous membrane that lines a cavity is the: Epithelial membrane.
When the normal hair is replaced by a very short, transparent hair, what condition results? Alopecia.
What disorder of the interaugmentary system causes potential infection of a newborn baby? Genital herpes.
What muscles would be found in the back of the legs? Hamstrings.
To increase the size of his anterior chest, a body builder would need to excerise his: Pectoralis major.
Which type of muscle is considered "voluntary"? Skeletal.
Janel wants to improve the extensibility of her muscles. What should she do every morning? Stretch.
A person who lifts weights overuses muscles. This overuse causes the muscles to enlarge or: Hypertrophy.
The knees are located on what surface of the body? Anterior.
Danice found a lump in her groin. Her physician describes the lump as being in what region? Hypogastric.
Cameron has been diagnosed with talipes. You would expect him to: Wear corrective shoes.
Karen burns her hand on a hot light bulb. What should she do first? Run the hand under cold water.
The medical term for the calf muscle is the: Gastrocnemius.
The main muscle of the lower back is the: Latissimus dorsi.
The main muscle of the upper back is the: Trapezius.
The prefix "later" means: Side.
The suffix "oma" means: Tumor.
What body part is inferior to the knee? The ankle.
A mild sunburn would be described as being: Superficial.
What muscle is found in the neck? Sternocleidomastoid.
What muscle is found in the arm? Triceps.
What muscle would be found in the lower leg? Gastrocnemius.
Leslie suffers from myalgia. Her muscles: Hurt.
The word root "osteo" means: Bone.
Which of the following is life threatening? Tetanus.
What is the medical term for shingles? Herpes Zoster.
Why is research being done on the use of newborn umbilical cord blood? Cord blood has immunity producing stem cells, is easy to transplant, and does not cause rejection.
Which of the following statements about veins is true? They collapse easily when not filled with blood.
Leukocytes have the ability to squeeze through the intercellular spaces of capillary walls to fight infection in neighboring tissue. This process is called: Diapedesis.
When there is inflammation in the body, chemical sustances travel to the hypothalamus, causing the body temperature to increase. What is the medical term for this condition? Pyrexia.
A disease of the circulatory system characterized by fatty deposits in the walls of the arteries which reduces the amount of blood going to an organ is: Atherosclerosis.
Why is arterial blood bright red? Because red blood cells carry oxyhemoglobin.
What blood disorder would be treated with antibiotics? Septicemia.
Jack has poor circulation which causes blood to remain too long in his veins. This results in the excessive accumulation of fluid in his tissues, also known as: Edema.
What malignant condition is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells which hinders the synthesis of red blood cells? Leukemia.
In addition to chest pain, which of the following are common symptoms of a heart attack? Pain radiating down left arm, nausea, and dyspnea.
White blood cells destroy bacteria by surrounding, engulfing, and digesting the bacteria. What is this process called? Macrophagia.
What would happen if an Rh negative person were given a blood transfusion of Rh positive blood? He/she would develop Rh antibodies.
Which statement best describes the pumping action of the heart? The heart functions as a double pump.
What special conducting cells originate an electrical impulse that begins and regulates the heart beat? SA node.
Mark is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of R/O MI. His doctor thinks Mark may have had a/an: Heart attack.
Enlarged veins which can be painful, inflamed and not as effective in returning blood to the heart are known as: Varicose veins.
Leslie feels dizzy when she gets up suddenly. At the doctor's office, her blood pressure is 90/50. Leslie has: Hypertension.
What disorder, that occurs in one of five Americans, is frequently called the silent killer because there are usually no symptoms? Aneurysm.
The circulation that takes deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where CO(underscript 2) is exchanged for O (underscript 2) is called: Cardiopulmonary circulation.
A tiny webbed stainless steel device which holds arteries open after an angioplasty is called a: Stent.
Jeff's doctor is considering treating Jeff with either a coronary by-pass or angioplasty. What is Jeff's problem? Myocardial infarction.
Margie is being treated with chemotherapy and radiation for skin cancer. Her treatment suppresses her bone marrow, causing: Aplastic anemia.
A lab report shows an abnormally large number of red blood cells. The medical diagnosis for this condition is: Polycythemia.
The liquid portion of the blood without cellular components is called: Plasma.
Which of the following is NOT a plasma protein? Hemoglobin.
What are two important electrolytes found in blood plasma? Sodium chloride and potassium.
Katia is diagnosed with thrombosis, which means that a blood clot has formed: In a blood vessel.
What type of blood cell is bioconcave and shaped somewhat like a donut? Erythrocyte.
What type of blood cell can be granular, agranular, translucent or ameboid in shape? Leukocyte.
The average adult usually carries how many quarts of blood? 5-6.
Which of the following is an example of a leukocyte? Neutrophil.
Fibrinogen and prothrombin are blood proteins that are necessary for: Blood clotting.
Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of a blood protein called a/an: Antigen.
What blood type is considered to be the universal recipient? AB.
A pus-filled cavity that forms when there is infection below the epidermis is a/an: Abcess.
Marilyn has leukopenia as a result of her chemotherapy. Marilyn's: White blood cell count is low.
What is the medical term for hemolytic disease of the newborn? Erythroblastosis fetalis.
A deficiency in the number of red blood cells is called: Anemia.
Which of the following blood disorders is inherited from both parents? Sickle cell anemia.
The partition between the right and left sides of the heart is the: Septum.
The tip of the heart that lies on the diaphragm and points to the left of the body is the: Apex.
The structures inside the heart that prevent back flow of the blood are the: Valves.
The vessels that are located on the outer surface of the heart to provide its oxygen supply are the: Coronary arteries.
The bicuspid (mitral) valve is located between the: Left atrium and left ventricle.
The smooth membrane that lines the inside of the heart and heart valve is the: Endocardium.
What large artery does blood enter as it leaves the left ventricle of the heart? Aorta.
The chamber of the heart pumping blood to the body is the: Left ventricle.
What valve prevents the backflow of blood as it leaves the heart and enters the aorta? Aortic semilunar.
When the heart's electrical impulse reaches the Purkinje fibers, what happens? The ventricles contract.
The major artery that carries blood to the brain is the: Carotid.
Blood that travels from the heart to the tissues and cells is part of: Systemic circulation.
The artery in the arm usually used to measure blood pressure is the: Brachial.
What type of blood vessels are the most muscular and elastic? Arteries.
The vessel that brings blood back to the heart from the upper body is the: Superior vena cava.
What term is used to describe the pain felt when the heart does not receive enough oxygen? Angina pectoris.
Cheryl has a clot in her leg. If the clot were to become dislodged, it would become a/an: Embolism.
A friend of yours has thrombocytopenia. You would expect him or her to: Bruise easily.
What is a hereditary disease in which the blood clots slowly or abnormally? Hemophilia.
What vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen? Pulmonary artery.
What chamber of the heart does the blood enter after it passes through the mitral valve? Left ventricle.
What node carries an electrical impulse from the SA node to the bundle of His? AV node.
Of the following, what vessel contains the highest level of oxygen? Arterioles.
Swollen, distending veins in the rectum are called: Hemorrhoids.
A doctor suspects a patient has diseased leg veins. What test would confirm this diagnosis? Angiogram.
Which of the following could be determined by taking a pulse? Bradycardia.
Tamara has a conduction defect. As a result, you would expect her to have: An arrhythmia.
Which of the following is a disorder of one or more heart valves? Mumur.
Paul is scheduled to have a coronary bypass. What MOST LIKELY is his medical probelem? He has a coronary artery obstruction.
Bonnie has endocarditis. How would this condition MOST LIKELY be treated? Antibiotics.
An artificial pacemaker would be used to treat someone with: A conduction defect.
Hemoglobin is composed of: Protein and iron.
The medical term for platelet is: Thrombocyte.
The main function of leukocytes is to: Fight infection.
The main function of erythrocytes is to: Carry oxygen.
Who would be a candidate for Rho Gam? An Rh negative mother.
The muscular layer of the heart is the: Myocardium.
The heart is composed of how many chambers? 4.
The upper chambers of the heart are called: Atria.
What is the average person's heart rate? 72-75 beats/minute.
An EKG or ECG is a recording of: The electrical activity of the heart.
Where can the popliteal pulse be felt? Behind the knee.
The contraction phase of the heart beat is called: Systole.
Erythrocytes carry: The RH factor.
What statement about prothrombin is true? It is a white blood cell.
Capillaries are one cell thick and can only: Be seen with a microscope.
Whih of the following statements about the lymph system is true? Lymphatic vessels accompany and closely parallel the veins.
Lymph nodes provide a site for lymphocyte production and they: Serve as a filter for screening out harmful substances.
Someone who is allergic to bees is stung by a bee, and begins to experience breathing problems, facial swelling, headache, and a falling blood pressure. This type of reaction is called: Anaphylaxis.
Which of the following statements about handwashing is true? Wash hands immediately after touching body fluids or secretions.
When should a health care worker wear eye protection? When splashes of blood or body fluids are likely.
Which of the following health care workers should wear a mask? A dental hygientist who is cleaning teeth.
Which of the following statements about caring for a patient with AIDS is true? Gowns should be worn when contact with blood or body fluids is likely.
Which of the following is a function of the lymphatic system? Defense by filtering bacteria.
Arnold is a patient with AIDS who has no open sores. When giving Arnold a backrub, what protective devices should the health care worker wear? None.
The system working with the lymphatic system to remove waste and excess fluid from the tissues is the: Circulatory system.
Lymph acts an intermediary between the blood in the capillaries and tissues, and carries digested food, oxygen and: Hormones to the cells.
Fluid that filters out of capillaries into the microscopic spaces between tissue cells is called: Interstitial fluid.
A form of cancer of the lymph nodes, what disease is usually characterized by painless swelling of the lymph nodes? Hodgkin's disease.
What is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infection? Handwashing.
A home health aide would need to wear gloves if performing which of the following procedures? Changing a non-sterile dressing.
Sally went to the doctor with severe sore throat, elevated temperature, enlarged tonsils, and chills. Her diagnosis is MOST LIKELY: Tonsilitis.
A friend had a bloody nose and you are going to help clean up the mess. What should you do FIRST? Put on gloves.
The body's ability to resist pathogens and foreign materials and the diseases they cause is called: Immunity.
What lymphatic system disease is caused by a virus, is spread by oral contact, and occurs most frequently in young adults and children? Mononucleosis.
A female had sexual contact with a male who has AIDS. How long will it be before she knows if she contracted the disease? 1 month-12 years.
A person is diagnosed with an opportunistic infection when he/she develops the infection because he/she: Has a compromised immune response.
Standard precautions are guidelines to be used when you expect to have contact with another person's: Blood.
What is the medical term for the watery fluid inside lymphatic vessels? Lymph.
In what location would you most likely find a cluster of lymph nodes? Under the arms.
One of the functions of the lymphatic system is: Returning tissue fluid to the general circulation.
The organ in the lymph system that stores a large amount of red blood cells is the: Spleen.
Which term describes GENERALIZED enlargement of the lymph nodes? Lymphadenitis.
With which of the following conditions is it recommended to wear a medic alert tag? Hypersensitivity to bee stings.
Javid is HIV positive, but he does not have AIDS. What term describes his condition? ARC.
Health care workers should never: Discard single use patient care equipment.
Cammie goes to the doctor complaining of respiratory symptoms. No prescription medications are ordered. Her physician instructs her to stay in bed for a day or two, and drink plenty of fruit juice. Cammie's diagnosis is MOST LIKELY: Common cold.
Tamika has had a cough and fever for three days. Following a chest x-ray, she is admitted to the hospital and treated with IV antibiotics and oxygen. Tamika is MOST LIKELY being treated for: Pneumonia.
Jerome had back surgery. Three days later, he experienced severe chest pain and dyspena. If his doctor orders a lung scan, it is because the doctor suspects: A pulmonary embolism.
Structures that produce mucous for the respiratory tract and serve as resonance chambers for the production of sound are the: Sinuses.
Kim experienced hoarseness for two days and loss of voice for three days. She most likely suffers from: Laryngitis.
Cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, and night sweats are symptoms of what disease? Tuberculosis.
Brandy has a headache and pressure behind her eyes. She has developed a thick nasal discharge and loss of voice resonance. Brandy has: Sinusitis.
Due to the increase in illegal immigration, homelessness, and AIDS, the incidence of what disease is increasing in the United States? Common Cold.
Johnny comes into the emergency room with wheezing, dyspena, and tightness in the chest. He is experiencing: Asthma.
Which body function is made possible by fibrous plates contained within the cartilage of the larynx? Diffusion.
A respiratory infection which spreads quickly and results in the greatest loss in production hours each year is: Common cold.
In what disease does air become trapped in the alveoli, making it difficult to exhale, while dyspena worsens as the disease progresses? Emphysema.
What is the name of the cartilage lid that covers the larynx when you swallow? Epiglottis.
The respiratory system ends in millions of tiny, thin-walled sacs called: Alveoli.
What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage? Pleura.
The walls of the trachea are made more rigid by the presence of: Rings of cartilage.
Each lung is divided into two or three parts called: Lobes.
When the trachea divides to enter both lungs, the tubes that are formed are called: Bronchi.
The partition that separates the nose into right and left cavities is the: Septum.
Which structure of the respiratory system is responsible for voice production? Larynx.
Which of the following is initially sensed by the brain to control breathing? Carbon dioxide level in blood.
Which of the following words would most closely describe the work of hair in the nose? Filters.
The normal number of breaths an adult takes each minute at rest is about: 14-20.
Of the following, which is the correct pathway of air into the lungs? Larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli.
Respirations would normally increase in number in response to high levels of: Oxygen in the blood.
Cilia located in the nasal cavity perform the function of: Filtering the air.
The part of respiration that involves taking air into the lungs is called: Inspiration.
What would normally cause a person's respiratory rate to decrease? Sleeping.
What disorder is characterized by overdilated alveoli that have lost their elasticity? Emphysema.
Melvin has been diagnosed with pleurisy. What symptoms would you expect him to have? Sharp, stabbing pain when breathing.
A patient with a cough, fever, substernal pain and rales will be treated for: Bronchitis.
What does someone with pneumonia have that is not present in the flu? Fluid in alveoli.
Marsha's grandmother is suffering from first stage Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following symptoms would her grandmother MOST LIKELY exhibit? Short-term memory loss.
A disease characterized by early senility, confusion, and loss of recognition of persons or familiar surrounding is: Alzheimer's Disease.
A child comes to the emergency room with a high fever, headache, and stiff neck. What diagnostic procedure would MOST LIKELY be performed? Lumbar puncture.
Marilyn is a 30 year-old who has developed weakness in her arms and legs, numbness and double vision. What disorder is consistent with Marliyn's symptoms? Mutiple sclerosis.
If all neurons in the body were functioning normally except those in the cerebum, what could a person do? Decide to move.
What structure in the brain is responsible for producing smooth coordinated movements and maintaining body posture? Cerebellum.
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there? 12.
There are four fluid filled cavities in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. What ae they called? Ventricles.
A child is born with normal intelligence but with brain damage that affects muscle function is suffering from: Cerebral palsy.
Cary often seems to be staring or daydreaming during class. What could these episodes be a sign of? Epilepsy.
Your uncle is suffering from dementia. Which of the following would you expect when you visit? He can't remember your name.
Wayne is diagnosed with Bell's palsy. When looking at Wayne, what physical symptoms would one expect to see? His mouth droops on one side of his face.
A baby is born with hydrocephalus. What surgical intervention is needed? The creation of a shunt.
The tough fluid-containing membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord is the: Meninges.
The space that separates the axon of one neuron from the dendrite of the next is the: Synapse.
How far down the spinal column does the spinal cord extend? To the second lumbar vertebrae.
The automatic nervous system consists of motor neurons that would control: The beating of the heart.
What is contained in the ventricles and serves as a shock absorber to protect the brain? Cerebrospinal fluid.
Stimulation of the patellar tendon results in a muscle contraction called a: Reflex.
What is the function of the choroid plexus? It helps in the function of cerebrospinal fluid.
The medulla, midbrain and pons are all part of the: Brainstem.
The shallow grooves on the surface of the cerebrum are: Sulci.
What part of the nervous system is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response? Sympathetic.
Conscious thought, memory, and voluntary muscle activity are functions of the: Cerebrum.
The hypothalamus has nine functions. One of the functions is: Appetite control.
Blood clot, hemorrhage, and ruptured aneurysm would result in: Stroke.
Which of the following is a common symptom of a CVA? Hemiplegia.
A condition involving abnormal electrical impulses of the brain is: Epilepsy.
Polio is a disease of nerve pathways of the spinal cord that causes: Paralysis.
What disease is characterized by tremors, a shuffling gait, pin-rolling and muscular rigidity? Parkinson's disease.
What diagnostic test measures the electrical activity of the brain? EEG.
What diagnostic test places a patient within a large magnet? MRI.
The largest part of the brain is the: Cerebrum.
The brain and spinal cord are part of the: Central nervous system.
A nerve cell is a/an: Neuron.
The single long arm of a neuron is the: Axon.
Dendrites carry messages: To the cell body.
The innermost layer of the meninges is the: Pia mater.
The hypothalamus and thalamus are part of the: Diencephalon.
What does a neuron have more than one of? Dendrite.
The medulla is located in the: Brainstem.
Why does our nose run when we cry? Tears flow across the eye into the lacrimal duct, which drains into the nasal cavity.
What is the function of the eustachian tube? Equalizes pressure in the middle ear with the outside atmosphere.
Pam tells you she wears glasses because the front of her eye is uneven. She insists she is neither nearsighted nor farsighted. Pam has a/an: Astigmatism.
A person who burns his/her tongue might have trouble tasting food if what structures are damaged? Papillae.
What three structures picks up the vibrations of fluid in the cochlea and transmits them as a sensory impulse to the brain? The semicircular canals.
What inner ear structure picks up the vibrations of fluid in the cochlea and transmits them as a sensory impulse to the brain? Organ of Corti.
Benjamin's eye muscles do not coordinate their actions and have a cross-eyed appearance. What is the medical term for this disorder? Strabismus.
The black center in the iris is really a hole called the: Pupil.
The eyeball has three coats; the sclera, the choroid and the: Retina.
What clear structure is called the "window of the eye?" Cornea.
Where on the retina do nerve fibers form the optic nerve? Optic disc.
The crystalline structure behind the pupil that focuses light rays on the retina is the: Lens.
What does the pupil do when exposed to bright light? Constrict.
Extrinsic eye muscles allow for eye movement, and are attached to the: Sclera.
The tube that connects the middle ear cavity and the throat is the: Eustachian tube.
Someone with diplopia would be treated by a/an: Ophthalmologist.
What should you do if a splinter becomes lodged in the eye? Cover both eyes and seek medical care.
Jose has a genetic disorder in which his cones do not function properly. He has: Color blindness.
What type of medication would be used to treat rhinitis? Antihistamine.
The conjuctiva is a sac that lines: The eyelid.
The lens of the eye lies directly behind the: Iris.
The iris is the: Colored part of the eye.
The eye is protected by the: Orbital cavity.
The white of the eyes is called the: Sclera.
The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with: Aqueous humor.
The size of the iris and pupil is changed by: Intrinsic muscles.
The function of the lens is: Accomodation.
The retina contains visual receptors called: Rods and cones.
What is the function of vitreous humor? Provide night vision and refract light rays.
The tympanic membrane is also known as the: Eardrum.
The outer part of the ear is known as the: Pinna.
The organ of Corti is located within the: Cochlea.
Otitis media is usually treated with: Antibiotics.
What is the function of the lacrimal glands? Produce tears.
In which order is the correct pathway of vision? Cornea, pupil, lens, retina, optic nerve.
Smell accounts for what percent of taste? 90%.
What is the function of cerumen? Protection.
What carries sound impulses to the brain? Auditory nerve.
What is the function of the ridges produced by papillae? To provide resistance to slipping when grasping and holding objects.
Daria has gingivitis. She should see a: Periodontist.
Lee developed a skin rash with severe itching. She went to a dermatologist who scraped the rash and looked under a microscope, finding tiny mites. What does Lee have? Scabies.
Leslie cut on the tip of her finger. This location in relation to her hand is described as being: Distal.
What cells in the skin are stimulated when exposed to sunlight, causing a darkening of the exposed area? Melanocytes.
What statement about malignant melanoma is true? It may appear as a brown irregular patch that appears suddenly.
Michael has not exercised for months, and one day, plays four hours of basketball. What might he complain of the next day? Myalgia.
Marilyn has a hand lesion that her physician treats with liquid nitrogen. What type of lesion does Marilyn have? A wart.
Carmen is very anxious about a job interview and develop itchy wheals on her arms and legs. She is suffering from: Urticaria.
Jojo was burned in a house fire. His doctor estimates his burns at 18%. How did the doctor determine the percentage? Rule of Nines.
Someone with bladder cancer would likely have which of the following symptoms? Hematuria.
Which organ would be located in the dorsal cavity of the body? Spinal cord.
What region is located between the hypochondriac regions? Epigastric.
The outer part of a serous membrane that lines a cavity is the: Parietal membrane.
What type of serous membrane lines the abdominal cavity? Peritoneal.
A patient has a lump in the breast. What procedure might be used to examine the patient? Mammogram.
What body system contains the brain, nerves and spinal cord? Nervous.
The hollow tube in which the hair grows is called the: Follicle.
The layer of skin that contains the blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles is the: Dermis.
The ridges of the stratum germinativum are called: Papillae.
Charmaine has a bladder infection. What symptom would she likely have? Dysuria.
When topical medication is applied to the skin, which function of the skin is being utilized? Absorption.
Sebaceous glands secrete an oil for hair and skin called: Sebum.
What type of skin cancer is the most common and least malignant? Basal cell carcinoma.
Which surgical procedure may be performed on someone with breast cancer? Mastectomy.
The function of the skin include protection, absorption and: Temperature control.
What muscle causes the skin to pucker around a hair when exposed to a sudden chill? Arrector pili.
Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light causes a darkening of the skin and: Vitamin D production.
What lower arm bone is located on thumb side of the hand? Radius.
The word root "lingua" or "glosso" means: Tongue.
The process of blood cell formation in the red bone marrow of bones is called: Hemopoiesis.
The word root "gingiva" means: Gum.
The suffix "toxic" means: Poisonous.
A benign tumor made up of fat cells is a/an: Lipoma.
The mid-sagital plane divides the body into: Right and left sides.
Which of the following is the most complex? Circulatory system.
Sweat glands are found primarily in or on the: Axila.
The visible part of the hair is called the: Shaft.
The medical term for sweat glands is: Sudoriferous glands.
The outermost layer of the skin is the: Epidermis.
The outermost layer of the epidermis is the: Stratum corneum.
The pigment that gives color to the skin is: Melanin.
Who would be a candidate for Rho Gam? An Rh negative mother.
The suffix "penia" means: Deficiency.
The word root "leuko" means: White.
The suffix that means "surgical removal of" is: -Ectomy.
The medical word root for "red" is: Erythro.
Mucous membranes line what body system? Respiratory.
What muscle is found in the neck? Sternocleidomastoid.
What statement about prothrombin is true? It is a white blood cell.
Someone who is born without melanin has: Albinism.
If Martina's skin is excoriated, she must have: Scraped it on something.
Carmen is a very thin dancer, who goes to a doctor for a physical exam. Which of the following comments by Carmen would lead the doctor to believe she may have an eating disorder? "I feel so fat in my costumes."
Sometimes, people with eating disorders follow their food consumption with purging. What is purging? Self-induced vomiting and laxative abuse.
Robert is jaundiced. Which of the following disorders could have caused his jaundice? A gallstone blocking the common bile duct.
Why does the 2005 Food Guide Pyramid show a person climbing stairs? To show the importance of exercise.
A Scientific Advisory Committee, appointed by the US Government, lists seven dietary guidelines. Which of the following is one of the recommendations? Eat a variety of foods.
Every time a newborn baby is fed he has projectile vomiting. After taking x-rays, doctors schedule the baby for surgery. What is the diagnosis? Pyloric stenosis.
Kristie has been suffering with a bout of gastroenteritis for about 24 hours. What would Kristie need when she is admitted to the hospital? IV fluids.
Gretchen has an inflammation of the large intestine which is causing episodes of constipation and diarrhea. What is the medical term for this disorder? Colitis.
A patient with colon cancer has most of his large intestine removed. What will be constructed to compensate for the missing bowel? Colostomy.
A small muscular sac that secretes bile and is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity is the: Gallbladder.
The muscle between the esophagus and stomach that keeps food from going back up into the esophagus is the: Cardiac sphincter.
The process in which broken down food moves from the intestine into the blood and lymph is called: Absorption.
The medical term that means inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the stomach and intestines is: Gastroenteritis.
When small quantities of stomach acid are regurgitated into the esophagus, the resulting condition is called: Heartburn.
Eating proper foods such as cereals, fruits, vegetables and drinking plenty of fluids can help avoid which of the following conditions? Constipation.
A unit that measures the amount of energy contained within the chemical bonds of different foods is a: Calorie.
When food labels list a percent of daily requirements for a nutrient, what calorie diet is the percent based on? 2000.
Obesity is defined as weighing what percent more than optimum body weight for gender, height, and bone structure? 15%.
Which of the following best explains the reason why a person with anorexia nervosa refuses to eat? Fear of weight gain.
The 2005 Food Guide Pyramid divides foods into five groups AND adds an additional band for: Fats and oils.
Small stones may pass on their own but large ones must be surgically removed in what condition? Cholelithiasis.
Curtis has H. pylori in his stomach. He smokes, drinks, and works as an air traffic controller. Curtis is at high fisk for developing: An ulcer.
Janice had a ruptured appendix. Bacteria from the appendix spread to the abdominal cavity causing: Peritonitis.
The middle segment of the small intestine is called the: Jejunum.
What feather-shaped organ secretes enzymes to digest food? Pancreas.
The part of the body that seperates the mouth from the nasal cavity is the: Hard palate.
The external opening of the large intestines is: Anus.
Food moves from the pharynx to the stomach by passing through the: Esophagus.
The glands which secrete a watery fluid in the mouth are called: Salivary glands.
The organ that is divided into 3 sections and is approximately 20 feet long is the: Small intestine.
The blind sac attached to the cecum and having no known function is known as the: Appendix.
The purpose of maltese, sucrase, and lactase is to: Emulsify saturated fats.
The muscular organ that aids with chewing and swallowing of food is the: Tongue.
Which enzyme causes the INITIAL chemical breakdown of carbohydrates? Ptyalin.
A semisolid mixture of food and gastric juice in the stomach is called: Chyme.
Which part of the small intestine receives bile from the gallbladder and liver? Duodenum.
The wavelike motions of the intestines that move food along the digestive tract are called: Peristalsis.
The medical term that means surgical removal of the gallbladder is: Cholecystectomy.
A liver disease caused PRIMARILY by excessive alcohol consumption is: Cirrhosis.
What fat is found in animal products like meat, cheese, and eggs? Cholesterol.
Which of the following is an example of a mineral? Calcium.
Proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids are called: Complete proteins.
What is the primary cause of obesity? Excessive intake of calories in proportion to expenditure.
What group is most likely to develop anorexia nervosa? Young adult females.
What disorder is characterized by episodic binge eating followed by purging behavior? Bulimia.
Which athletes are most likely to develop anorexia nervosa? Female gymnasts.
In addition to severe weight loss, a female with anorexia nervosa USUALLY has: Amenorrhea.
When will Tom's stomach be empty if he last ate at 9 a.m.? 12 noon.
A condition in which a sore or a lesion forms in the mucosal lining of the stomach is called: An ulcer.
It is recommended that all healthcare workers be vaccinated for which of the following diseases? Hepatitis B.
What nutrient is the main source of energy for the body? Carbohydrates.
What nutrient is an essential component for all body tissues? Water.
What is the indigestible part of fruits and vegetables? Roughage.
What minerals are important to the formation or maintenance of healthy teeth? Calcium and fluorine.
According to the 2005 Food Guide Pyramid, we need the most servings from what group? Grains.
Mandated nutrition labeling for most food is regulated by the: FDA.
The 2005 Food Guide Pyramid recommends you consume what food group the least? Meat, beans, fish and nuts.
A person on a low cholesterol diet would eat plenty of: Grains.
If a person is on a liquid diet, he or she could consume: Jello.
In addition to severe weight loss, a female with anorexia nervosa often has: Amenorrhea.
What statement BEST describes a method of heartburn prevention? Avoid lying down for 2-3 hours after eating.
A person in what age group would be MOST LIKELY to be diagnosed with diverticulosis? 60-80 years old.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach lining is: Gastritis.
A health care worker who is struck with a contaminated needle is at risk of developing: Hepatitis B.
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To push food forward.
What organ detoxifies alcohol? Liver.
Hepatitis is usually caused by a/an: Virus.
Fiber is important in maintaining: Proper bowel functioning.
What do the initials "RDA" stand for? Recommended dietary allowance.
The largest organ in the body is the: Liver.
Proteins are synthesized in cell cytoplasm from: Amino acids.
Testosterone is responsible for secondary male characteristics, including deepening of the voice, the growth of body hair, and: An increase in muscle mass.
Menopause normally occurs between the ages of forty-five to fifty-five, but can be induced prematurely by removal of the: Ovaries.
What diagnostic procedure would a physician order for a patient who detects a lump in the breast? Mammography.
Each lobe of the testis contains one to four highly twisted: Seminiferous tubules.
What is laproscopy? Surgical insertion of a lighted instrument through the abdominal wall.
A condition in which tissue resembling the inner layer of the uterus grows in various locations in the pelvic cavity is: Endometriosis.
A woman who completes a course of antibiotic treatment and then experiences vaginal itching, burning and leukorrhea would be treated with: Antifungal medication.
What ducts connect the vas deferens with the urethra? Ejaculatory duct.
What structure connects the testes with the ductus deferens? Epididymsis.
What male reproductive gland surrounds the opening of the bladder leading into the urethra? Prosstate gland.
The external organs of the male reproductive system are the: Testis and penis.
What structure serves as a storage site for sperm and as the excretory duct of the testis? Vas Deferens.
Fluid from the prostate gland aids in the expulsion of semen and: Enhances sperm motility.
What structure of the male reproductive system is shared with the urinary system? Urethra.
The female reproductive system which serves as a passageway for ova to the uterus is the: Fallopian tube.
A muscular tube leading from the cervix to the outside of the body is the: Vagina.
The two folds of tissue that protect the vaginal opening and the urethral meatus are the: Labia.
The bulging, rounded upper part of the uterus is the: Fundus.
The normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining in a female is known as: Menustruation.
The part of the uterus that becomes soft and thin before dilating to allow passage of a baby is the: Cervix.
The female reproductive organ responsible for producing estrogen is the: Ovary.
The two hormones that are used in contraceptive pills are: Estrogen and progesterone.
The test that women should have annually for the early detection of cervical cancer is the: Pap smear.
Redness, swelling, and pain in the breasts could indicate: Mastitis.
The sterilization procedure for women is called a/an: Tubal ligation.
The prostate gland is approximately the size of a/an: Peanut.
Of the following male reproductive structures, which is normally the largest? Testis.
Which of the following glands produces a secretion to transport sperm? Prostate gland.
The external area between the vulva and anus is the: Vagina.
The scientific name for the beginnning of the menses is: Menarche.
The unintentional loss of a pregnancy is called a: Spontaneous abortion.
The sterilization procedure for a male is called a/an: Vasectomy.
The procedure to remove the foreskin of the penis is called a/an: Circumcision.
What is a usual symptom of prostatic hypertrophy? Polyuria.
For what STD may a pregnant woman need a C-section to prevent infection of the new born? Genital herpes.
What is the medical term for inflammation of the testes? Orchitis.
The scrotum contains the: Testes.
The foreskin of the penis is also known as the: Prepuce.
What are the male gametes? Spermatozoa.
Sperm are produced in the: Testes.
The male hormone produced by the testes is: Testosterone.
Sperm are stored in the: Epididymis.
In the embryo, where are the testes formed? In the abdomen.
Mammary glands are located in the: Breasts.
The muscle layer of the uterus is the: Myometrium.
The inner mucous layer of the uterus is the: Endometrium.
The fetus develops in the: Uterus.
The mouth of the uterus is the: Cervix.
Fertilization of the ovum usually occurs in the: Fallopian tubes.
The average length of the menstrual cycle is: 28 days.
The female gamete is produced in the: Ovary.
What is the function of ejaculation? Discharge of sperm.
How long is the normal gestation period? 9 months.
When does fertilization occur? When the sperm penetrates the ovum.
What is the medical term of menstrual cramps? Dysmenorrhea.
What is the path of the formation of urine? Glomerulus--Bowman's capsule--proximal convoluted tubule--loop of Henle--distal convoluted tubule--collecting tubule.
If the kidneys are not functioning properly, what would occur? Toxic wastes would accumulate in the cells, poisoning themselves.
During the function of urine formation in the kidneys, useful substances filter out of the renal tubules and back into the capillaries around the tubules. This function is called: Reabsorption.
Dialysis involves the use of a device that rids the blood of harmful wastes by passing the blood through: A semipermeable membrane.
The elastic muscular organ that is capable of great expansion and is part of the urinary system is the: Bladder.
Doug is getting old and sometimes he unintentionally wets his pants. The medical term for this is: Incontinence.
Production of urine is controlled by two hormones: ADH and aldosterone.
Jane is 7 years old and is complaining of dysuria. Her most likely diagnosis is: Cystitis.
The function of the urinary system is to: Remove waste products from the body.
What procedure would be the BEST treatment for renal failure? Kidney transplant.
The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney is the: Nephron.
The tubes connecting the kidneys and bladder are called: Ureters.
The cluster of capillaries that the Bowman's capsule surrounds in the nephron is the: Glomerulus.
The opening of the urethra to the outside of the body is the: Urinary meatus.
The double-walled capsule surrounding the glomerulus is the: Bowman's Capsule.
The tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body is the: Urethra.
What substance found during a routine urinalysis is normal? Water.
What is the main complication of a kidney transplant? Rejection.
Which of the following is an early sign of acute kidney failure? Obliguria.
What set of symptoms would be expected in someone with renal calculi? Severe pain, chills, hematuria.
Kidney trauma can cause red blood cells to be present in the urine. This is known as: Hematuria.
The triangular-shaped divisions of the medulla of the kidney are called: Pyramids.
In chronic renal failure, there is a gradual loss of the function of the: Nephrons.
Katie has a fever and flank pain. A urinalysis is done and shows pyuria. Katie may have: Renal calculi.
Someone who drinks a lot of water may experience: Polyuria.
Which of the following conditions is most common in small children? Enuresis.
The function of the glomerulus is to: Filter substances from the blood.
The function of the urinary bladder is to: Store and aid the elimination of urine.
Filtration in the kidney occurs in the: Glomerulus.
Urine formation begins with: Filtration.
A lithotriptor can break up renal calculi using: Shockwaves.
Hemodialysis is used to treat: Kidney failure.
The most common cause of cystitis is: E Coli.
The urinary bladder is located in the: Pelvic cavity.
The inner layer of the kidney is the: Medulla.
Created by: rierei1971