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Nervous System A&P

Brain and Nervous System Functions for PHYL301 (Anatomy and Physiology I)

QuestionAnswer
Hypothalamus Autonomic functions, Appetitive Drives (thirst, hunger, sexual desire) behaviors
Supraoptic Nucleus (Hypothalamus) Secretes antidiuretic hormone, restricts water loss at kidneys
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (Hypothalamus) Regulates Daily (Circadian) Rhythms
Paraventricular Nucleus (Hypothalamus) Secretes Oxytocin, stimulates smooth muscle contractions in uterus/mammary glands, male reproductive tract/glands
Preoptic Area (Hypothalamus) Regulates body temperature via control of autonomic centers in the medulla oblongata
Tuberal Area (Hypothalamus) Produces inhibitory and releasing hormones that control endocrine cells of the anterior lobe of pituitary gland
Autonomic Centers (Hypothalamus) Control heart rate and blood pressure via regulation of autonomic centers in medulla oblongata
Mamillary Bodies (Hypothalamus) Control Feeding Reflexes (licking, swallowing, etc)
Satellite Cells (Neuroglia) Peripheral Nervous System; surround neuron cell bodies ganglia; regulate Oxygen/CO2, nutrients, neurotransmitter levels
Schwann Cells (Neuroglia) Peripheral Nervous System; Surround all axons in PNS; responsible for myelination of peripheral axons; help with repair axons
Ependymal Cells (Neuroglia) Central Nervous System; Line ventricles(brain) and central canal(Spinal cord); assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring cerebrospinal fluid
Microglia (Neuroglia) Central Nervous System; Remove cell debris, wastes, pathogens
Astrocytes (Neuroglia) Central Nervous System; Maintain blood-brain barrier, structural support; regulate ion, nutrient, and gas conc; absorb/recycle neurotransmitters
Oligodendrocytes (Neuroglia) Central Nervous System; Myelinate CNS axons (Can myelinate multiple axons at once); provides structural framework
Dorsal (posterior) Horn (Spinal Cord) Somatic/autonomic sensory neurons
Ventral (Anterior) Horn (Spinal Cord) Motor Pathway, Interneurons
Lateral Horn (Spinal Cord) Autonomic Motor Neurons (Sympathetic Nervous System)
Gray commissure (Spinal Cord) Interneurons to cross midline
Cerebrum Conscious thought processes, intellectual functions; Memory storage and processing; Conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions
Thalamus Relay and processing centers for sensory information
Hypothalamus Centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions and hormone production ; Primary link between Endocrine/Nervous system
Mesencephalon Processing of visual and auditory data; Generation of reflexive somatic motor responses; Maintenance of consciousness
Pons Relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus; Subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
Medulla Oblongata Relays sensory information to thalamus / other portions of brain stem; Autonomic centers for regulation visceral functions (cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive system)
Cerebellum Coordinates complex somatic motor patterns; Adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain/spinal cord; Memories also
Telencephalon becomes... Cerebrum
Diencephalon becomes... Diencephalon
Mesencephalon becomes... Mesencephalon
Metencephalon becomes... Cerebellum and Pons
Myelencephalon becomes... Medulla Oblongata
Frontal Lobe Primary Motor Cortex
Parietal Lobe Primary Sensory Cortex
Occipital Lobe Visual Cortex
Temporal Lobe Auditory/Olfactory Cortex
Primary Motor Cortex Conscious control of skeletal muscles
Primary Sensory Cortex Conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature and taste
Visual Cortex Conscious perception of visual stimuli
Auditory Cortex/Olfactory Cortex Conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli
Basal Nuclei Control muscle tones, coordination of learned activities
Limbic System Emotional states, Autonomic activity, Neuroendocrine, Learning, Behavioral Drives
Cingulate Gyrus (Limbic System) Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Attention Processing
Fornix & Hippocampus (Limbic System) Long-term Memory
Parahippocampal Gyrus (Limbic System) Spatial Memory
Amygdaloid Body (Limbic System) Jealousy, Fear, Aggression
Anterior Group (Thalamus) Part of Limbic System
Medial Group (Thalamus) Integrates sensory information and other data arriving at thalamus and hypothalamus for projection to the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Ventral Group (Thalamus) Projects sensory information to primary sensory cortex of parietal lobe; relays information from cerebellum and basal nuclei to motor areas of cerebral cortex
Pulvinar (Posterior Group, Thalamus) Integrates sensory information for projection to association areas of cerebral cortex
Lateral Geniculate Nuclei (Posterior Group, Thalamus) Project visual information to the visual cortex of occipital lobe
Medial Geniculate Nuclei (Posterior Group, Thalamus) Project auditory information to the auditory cortex of temporal lobe
Lateral Group (Thalamus) Form feedback looops involving the cingulate gyrus (emotional states) and the parietal lobe (integration of sensory information)
Superior Colliculus (Mesencephalon) Receives visual inputs from lateral geniculate of thalamus same side
Inferior Colliculus (Mesencephalon) Receives auditory data from nuclei in the medulla oblongata; some info forwarded to medial geniculate same side
Red Nuclei (Mesencephalon) Involuntary control background muscle tone and limb position
Substantia Nigra (Mesencephalon) Regulates activity in the basal nuclei
Reticular formation (Mesencephalon) Automatic processing of incoming sensations and outgoing motor commands; can initiate motor responses to stimuli; helps maintain consciousness
Cerebral peduncles (Mesencephalon) Connect primary motor cortex with motor neurons in brain and spinal cord; carry ascending sensory information to thalamus
Pneumotaxic and Apneustic Centers (Pons) Involuntary control respiration by modifying activity of respiratory rhythmicity center in medulla oblongata
Vermis Separates Cerebellar hemispheres
Purkinje Cells Massive pear-shaped cell bodies with large, numerous dendrites fanning out into gray matter of cerebellar cortex.
Nucleus Gracilis (Medulla Oblongata) Relay somatic sensory information to the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (Trunk, Upper Extremities)
Nucleus Cuneatus (Medulla Oblongata) Relay somatic sensory information to the ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus (Lower Extremities)
Olivary Nuclei (Medulla Oblongata) Relay information from spinal cord, red nucleus, other midbrain centers, and the cerebral cortex to vermis of cerebellum
Cardiac Center (Medulla Oblongata) Regulates heart rate and force of contraction
Vasomotor Center (Medulla Oblongata) Regulate distribution of blood flow
Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers (Medulla Oblongata) Set the pace of respiratory movements
Ascending and Descendring Tracts (White Matter, Medulla Oblongata) Link the brain with the spinal cord
Cranial Nerve I (Sensory) Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve II (Sensory) Optic Nerve
Cranial Nerve III (Motor) Oculomotor Nerve
Cranial Nerve IV (Motor) Trochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve V (Both) Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve VI (Motor) Abducens Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII (Both) Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve VIII (Sensory) Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve IX (Both) Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Cranial Nerve X (Both) Vagus Nerve
Cranial Nerve XI (Motor) Accessory Nerve
Cranial Nerve XII (Motor) Hypoglossal Nerve
Reticular Formation (Medulla Oblongata) Sensory stimuli to Wake Up
CN I Primary Function: Special Sensory (Smell); Origin: Receptors of olfactory epithelium; Pass Through: Cribriform plate of ethmoid; Destination: Olfactory Bulbs
CN II Primary Function: Special sensory (vision); Origin: Retina of eye; Pass Through: Optic canal of sphenoid; Destination: Diencephalon via optic chiasm
CN III Primary Function: Motor, eye movements, Origin: Mesencephalon; Pass Through: Superior orbital fissure of sphenoid; Destination: Somatic Motor - Superior, Inferior, Medial Rectus Muscles, Inferior Oblique Muscle : Visceral motor - intrinsic eye muscles
CN IV Primary function: Motor, eye movements; Origin: Mesencephalon; Pass through: Superior orbital fissure sphenoid; Destination: Superior oblique muscle
CN V Three Branches: Ophthalmic Branch, Maxillary Branch, and Mandibular Branch; Pass Through: Ophthalmic branch via superior orbital fissure, maxillary branch via foramen rotundum, mandibular branch via foramen ovale; Destination: Sensory Nuclei Pons
CN VI Primary Function: Motor, eye movements; Origin: Pons; Pases through: Superior orbital fissure of sphenoid; Destination: Lateral rectus muscle
CN VII Primary function: Sensory and Motor; Origin: Sensory from taste receptors on anterior 2/3rd tongue; motor from motor nuclei of pons; Pass through: internal acoustic meatus temporal bone; Destination: Sensory nuclei pons, facial expression, lacrimal glands
CN VIII Primary Function: Balance and equilibrium (vestibular branch) and hearing (cochlear branch); Origin: Receptors inner ear; Pass through: Internal acoustic meatus; Destination: Vestibular/Cochlear Nuclei of Pons and Medulla Oblongata
CN IX Function: Sensory and motor; Origin: Posterior 1/3rd tongue, pharynx, palate, carotid arteries, motor nuclei medulla oblongata; Pass through: jugular foramen between occipital/temporal bone; Destination: medulla oblongata, pharyngeal muscles, salivary gl
CN X Function: Both; Origin: Pharynx, auricle, motor nuclei pons; Pass through: Jugular foramen btwn Occipital/Temporal bones; Destination: Autonomic ctrs Medulla, palate and pharynx; respiratory, cardio, digestive organs
CN XI Function: Motor; Origin: Motor nuclei spinal cord/medulla; Pass through: jugular foramen btwn occipital/temporal bones; Destination: Internal - Voluntary muscles palate, pharynx, larynx; external - sternocleidomastoid/trapezius muscles
CN XII Primary function: Motor, tongue movement; Origin: Motor nuclei of Medulla; Pass through: Hypoglossal canal occipital bone; Destination: Muscles of Tongue
Posterior Column Pathway Fine-Touch, vibration, pressure, proprioception sensation - Fasciculus gracilis/cuneatus - nucleus gracilis - xover - medial lemniscus - ventral nuclei thalamus - sensory homunculus cerebrum
Anterior Spinothalamic Tract Crude touch and pressure sensations - xover - anterior spinothalamic tract - ventral nuclei thalamus - sensory homunculus cerebrum
Lateral Spinothalamic Tract Pain and temperature sensation - xover - lateral spinothalamic tract - ventral nuclei thalamus - sensory homunculus cerebrum
Spinocerebellar Pathway Proprioceptive input Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindles, joint capsules - Posterior or Anterior Spinocerebllar tract - Cerebellum
Basal Nuclei (Somatic Motor Control) Modify voluntary and reflexive motor patterns subconscious level
Hypothalamus (Somatic Motor Control) Controls stereotyped motor patterns related to eating, drinking, sexual activity; modifies respiratory reflexes
Pons/Superior Medulla Oblongata (Somatic Motor Control) Control balance reflexes and more-complex respiratory reflexes
Brain Stem and Spinal Cord (Somatic Motor Control) Control simple cranial and spinal reflexes
Inferior Medulla Oblongata (Somatic Motor Control) Controls basic respiratory reflexes
Cerebellum (Somatic Motor Control) Coordinates complex motor patterns
Thalamus/Mesencephalon (Somatic Motor Control) Control reflexes in response to visual and auditory stimuli
Cerebral cortex (Somatic Motor Control) Plans and initiates voluntary motor activity
Broca's Area Speech Center
Wernicke's Area Gnostic Area - perceiving and recognizing form, persons, places, things, etc.
Prefrontal Cortex Most complex brain area. Performs complicated learning and reasoning functions. Emotional context and motivation also.
Reticular Activating System Complex interactions between brain stem and cerebral cortex; A poorly defined network in reticular formation; Levels of consciousness
Delirium Disorientation,r estlessness, confusion, hallucinations, agitation
Dementia Progressive decline spatial orientation, memory, behavior, language.
Confusion Reduced awareness, easily distracted, easily startled, alternates between drowsiness and excitability
Normal Consciousness Aware of self and external environment, well-orientated, responsive
Somnolence Extreme drowsiness, but responds normally to stimuli
Chronic vegetative state Conscious but unresponsive, no evidence cortical function.
Asleep Can be aroused by normal stimuli
Stupor Can be aroused by extreme and/or repeated stimuli
Coma Cannot be aroused and does not respond to stimuli
Phasic Receptors Fast-adapting receptors
Tonic Receptors Slow-adapting receptors
Exteroceptors Provide information about external environment
Proprioceptors Mechanoreceptor, monitor body position
Interoceptors Monitor conditions inside the body
Nociceptors Respond to tissue damage
Thermoreceptors Respond to change in temperature
Mechanoreceptors Stimulated by physical distortion, contact, pressure
Chemoreceptors Monitor chemical composition of body fluids
Tactile Receptors Mechanoreceptor, provides sensations of touch, pressure, and vibrations
Baroreceptors Mechanoreceptor, detects pressure changes in walls of blood vessels and in portions of digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts
Free Nerve Endings, Tactile discs (Touch Receptors) Responds to light contact with skin
Root Hair Plexus (Touch Receptor) Responds to initial contact with hair shaft
Tactile corpuscle (Pressure Receptor) Responds to initial contact and low-frequency vibrations
Lamellated Corpuscle (Pressure Receptor) responds to initial contact (deep) and high-frequency vibrations
Ruffini Corpuscle (Pressure Receptor) Responds to deep pressure, stretching and distortion of the dermis
Facial Nerve (Gustation) Brings taste to brainstem from anterior 2/3rd Tongue. (Sour,Bitter,Salty,Sweet)
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Gustation) Brings taste to brainstem from posterior 1/3rd Tongue. Water Receptors.
Vagus Nerve (Gustation) Brings taste to brainstem from small area on epiglottis
Gustation Pathway Tongue - CN nerve (VIII, IX, or X) - Nucleus Solitarius - Medial Leminiscus - Thalamic Nucleus - Gustatory cortex
Vestibular Pathway Semicircular Canals - Vestibular Ganglion - Vestibular Branch (CN VIII) - Vestibular nucleus - Cerebellum/Vestibulospinal Tracts/Superior colliculus and relay to cerebral cortex
Auditory Pathway Cochlea - Cochlear branch (CN VIII) - Cochlear nucleus - Inferior colliculus (mesencephalon) - Medial geniculate nucleus (thalamus) - Auditory cortex (Temporal lobe)
Vision Pathway Light - Rod/Cones - Bipolar Cells - Ganglion Cells - AP Fired - Optic Nerve - Optic Chiasm - Optic Tract - LGN - Projection Fibers - Visual Cortex
Glutamate Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System; Excitatory both indirectly/directly; EPSPs
GABA Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System; Inhibitory; Involved with Cl-; IPSPs
Glycine Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System; Inhibitory; IPSPs
AcH Neurotransmitter in Central and Peripheral Nervous System; EPSPs; Involved with Na+ and K+ Channels; Neuromuscular junctions;
Synaptic Transmission Pathway AP - Ca++ Channels Open - Ca++ Flows in - Synaptic Vesicles Fuse - Release neurotransmitter synaptic cleft - binds receptor - current post-synaptic membrane - neurotransmitter pumped back in and repackaged
Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System and Sympathetic Nervous System; Catecholamine ; Indirectly acts with Adernergic Receptors
Epinephrine Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System; Catecholamine; Indirectly acts
Dopamine Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System; Catecholamine; Indirectly acts
Serotonin Neurotransmitter in Central Nervous System; acts indirectly/directly
Indirect Transmission Pathway NE binds G-Protein Coupled Receptor - GDP released - GTP attached - subunit activates Enzyme - Releases cAMP - activates enzyme which phosphorylates K+ channel - K+ channel closes causing depolarization
Adernergic Receptor: alpha-1 Slow excitation - Smooth muscle contracts - located on blood vessels of skin, mucosae, and abdominal viscera
Adernergic Receptor: beta-1 Slow excitation - Heart rate strength increase - located in heart
Adernergic Receptor: beta-2 Slow inhibition - Dilation blood vessels - located respiratory airways and blood vessels skeletal muscle and heart
Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System Nerves
Parasympathetic Nervous System Division of Autonomic Nervous System; "At rest"
Sympathetic Nervous System Division of Autonomic Nervous System; "Fight or Flight", Stressful situations
Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune disease attacks Ach receptors; Can help via increasing amount Ach in body
Unipolar (Sensory Neuron) Touch, Pressure, Pain, Taste; Proprioception; visceral organs
Bipolar (Sensory Neuron) Hearing, olfaction
Bipolar/Multipolar (Sensory Neuron) Vision
Created by: 1519275428