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Becarcinogenic Cancer causing
Oncogenic Tumor causing
Main classes of Carcinogenic agents viruses, chemicals, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, hormones, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and miscellaneous
Name the main oncogenic viruses and the cancer they cause Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma, HPV)& carcinoma of the uterine cervix, Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, Epstein-Barr virus and certain forms of lymphoma& nasopharyngeal carcino
What is Burkitt Lymphoma EBV causes tumor
Polyclonal Lymphoproliferation in Immunodeficient States Congenital/acquired immunodeficiencies made worse by EBV-induced B cell proliferative disorders
What are the congenital immunodeficiency states associated with EBV infections and aggressive lymphoproliferations? X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and AT
What do patients with XLP lack? EBV specific lymphocytes that get rid of EBV infectied cells
What is Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Childhood squamous cell carcinoma the linked to EBV infections because of EBV lysed lymphocytes What are HBV and HCV linked to?
What is a mutagen? an agent that can permanently alter the genetic composition of a cell
What type of carcinogens are normally mutagens? chemicals
What is the Ames test used for? Evaluate mutagenicity of an carcinogen What are the four stages of chemical carcinogenesis?
What do most chemical carcinogens do in the body? Undergo metabolic activation (procarcinogen to carcinogen)
What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons? benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and dibenzanthracene, potentially in cigarette smoke. Metabolized by p450 and react with proteins and nucleic acids
What are alkylating agents? chemotherapeutic drugs-so when treating cancer, might be making more cancer to be dealt with at a later date
What is aflatoxin toxin made by A. flavus. Potent liver carcinogen. Peanuts and grains Aflatoxin is converted to epoxide which binds to DNA
What are aromatic amines and azo dyes? aromatic amines-bladder cancer and azo dyes- liver cancer. Both are metabolized at the liver. Hydroxylamino derivatives are made and then conjugated with glucuronic acid. In the bladder, unfortunately, Glucuronide releases reactive hydroxylamine causi
What are nitrosamines? Potential agent of human GI neoplasms and maybe other cancers. These are preservative in processed meats
What metals can induce cancer? Electrophilic metals: nickel, lead, cadmium, cobalt, and beryllium
Name the ionizing radiation carcinogens x-rays, Radium, iodine, radiation therapy, thorium, atomic bomb, low-level radiation and cancer
What is Thorium? Thorotrast phagocytes ingest it, was used for radionuclide imaging, caused tumors, especially angiosarcomas of the liver
What is the atomic bomb relationship to cancer? lots of leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, solid tumors
What is low-level radiation and cancer relationship? Potentially carcinogenous
What is Radon’s relationship to cancer? lung cancer
What is non-ionizing radiation? UV
What and how does non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Formation of pyrimidine dimmers in DNA that mess up the phosphodiester backbone. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, and melanoma
What is xeroderma pigmentosum? autosomal recessive disease. High sensitivity to sunlight ahigh rate of squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and basal cell carcinoma
What do hormones do in cancer can cause cancer
Estrogen’s role in breast cancer high levels linked to cancer
What is the suggested cause of carcinoma of the endometrium? estrogen levels (hormone replacement is associated with this cancer.
Agent of gastric lymphomas? helicobacter pylori
What two parasites are linked to what two cancers? Schistosoma-bladder cancer Clonorochis Sinensis epithelial hyperplasia
What is the relationship between asbestos and cancer? An agent of lung cancer
Created by: VCOM2013