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CSA Chapter 14

Female Reproductive System and Obstetrics

TermDefinition
-arche (suffix) beginning
cervic/o neck or cervix
colp/o vagina (sheath)
episi/o vulva (covering)
gynec/o woman
hyster/o uterus
lact/o milk
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
men/o menstruation, menses
metro/o uterus
obstetro/o midwife
oo- egg, ovary
oophor/o ovary
ov/i egg
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
pelv/i pelvis (basin) ; hip bone
salping/o uterine (fallopian) tube; also, Eustachian tube
toc/o labor or birth
uter/o uterus
vagin/o vagina (sheath)
vulv/o vulva (covering)
uterus womb; a pear-shaped organ in the pelvic cavity in which the embryo and fetus develops
fundus upper portion of the uterus above the entry to the uterine tubes
endometrium lining of the uterus, which is shed approximately every 28 to 30 days in a nonpregnant female during menstruation
myometrium muscular wall of the uterus
uterine tubes tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus; also called Fallopian tubes
fallopian tubes tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus; also called uterine tubes
adnexa uterine tubes and ovaries (uterine appendages)
right uterine appendage right uterine tube and ovary
left uterine appendage left uterine tube and ovary
ovary one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce oocytes and female sex hormones
oocyte female gamete (sex cells); when fertilized by a sperm, it develops into an ovum and its capable of developing into a new individual
ovum imprecise term for a fertilized oocyte that is capable of implanting within the uterine wall
cervix neck of the uterus
cervical os opening of the cervix to the uterus
vagina tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body
vulva external genitalia of the female; term means "wrapper"
labia folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening; known as the labia majora and labia minora
mons pubis rounded mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone
clitoris female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva
hymen fold of mucous membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina
vaginal orifice opening of the vagina; also called introitus
introitus opening of the vagina; also called vaginal orifice
greater vestibular glands two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse; also called Bartholin glands
Bartholin glands two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse; also called greater vestibular glands
perineum region between the vulva and anus
breasts protruding organs that contained the modified sweat glands called mammary glands that produce milk.
mammary glands two glands in the female breasts ( one in each breast) that are capable of producing milk
nipple projection (mammary papilla) on the breast surface through which milk can be secreted; lactiferous ducts carry breast milk to the nipple and lactiferous sinuses are expanded chambers that converge on the nipple surface
areola dark-pigmented area around the nipple
embryo the developing organism from fertilization to the end of the eight week
fetus the developing organism from the ninth week to birth
placenta vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus (placenta=cake)
amnion innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid; also called amniotic sac
amniotic sac innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid; also called amnion
amniotic fluid fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus
meconium intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn
amenorrhea absence of menstruation
dysmenorrhea painful menstruation
oligomenorrhea infrequent menstruation
anovulation absence of ovulation
dyspareunia painful intercourse (coitus) (dys = painful; para = alongside of; eunia = bed)
leukorrhea abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge
menorrhagia excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation
metrorrhagia bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation
oligo-ovulation irregular ovulation
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix
congenital anomalies birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or a structure (e.g., double uterus or absent vagina); also called congenital irregularities
congenital irregularities birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or a structure (e.g., double uterus or absent vagina); also called congenital anomalies
dermoid cyst congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue (teeth, bone, cartilage, and hair); typically found in an ovary and usually benign
displacement of uterus displacement of the uterus from its normal position
anteflexion abnormal forward bending of the uterus (ante = before; flexus = bend)
retroflexion abnormal backward bending of the uterus
retroversion backward turn of the whole uterus; also called tipped uterus
endometriosis condition characterized by migration of portions of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
endometritis inflammation of the endometrium
fibroid benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue; also called fibromyoma or leiomyoma
fibromyoma benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
leiomyoma benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
fistula abnormal passage, such as from one hollow organ to another (fistula= pipe)
rectovaginal fistula abnormal opening between the vagina and rectum
vesicovaginal fistula abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina
cervical neoplasia abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation: CIN-1: mild dysplasia CIN-2: moderate dysplasia CIN-3: severe dysplasia
cervical dysplasia potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation: CIN-1: mild dysplasia CIN-2: moderate dysplasia CIN-3: severe dysplasia
carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized, without any spread to adjacent structures
menopause Cessation of menstrual periods caused by lack of ovarian hormones
oophoritis inflammation of one or both ovaries
parovarian cyst cyst of the uterine tube (fallopian tube)
pelvic adhesions scarring of tissue within the pelvic cavity resulting from endometriosis, infection, or injury
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) inflammation of organs in the pelvic cavity; usually includes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and endometrium; most often caused by bacteria
pelvic floor relaxation relaxation of supportive ligaments of the pelvic organs
cystocle pouching of the bladder into the vagina
rectocele pouching of the rectum into the vagina
enterocele pouching sac of peritoneum between the vagina and the rectum
urethrocele pouching of the urethra into the vagina
prolaspe descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal
salpingitis inflammation of a fallopian tube
vaginitis inflammation of the vagina with redness, swelling, and irritation; often caused by a specific organism, such as Candida (yeast) or Trichomonas (a sexually transmitted parasite)
atrophic vaginitis thinning of the vagina and loss of moisture because of depletion of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue
vaginosis infection of the vagina, with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milk-like discharge and an unpleasant odor; also known as nonspecific vaginitis
chlamydia most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in North America; often occurs with no symptoms and is treated only after it has spread, such as after causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
gonorrhea contagious inflammation of the genital mucous membranes caused by invasion of the gonococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae; the term refers to the urethral discharge characteristic of the infection, which was first thought to be a leakage or semen
syphilis infectious disease caused by a spirochete transmitted via direct, intimate contact and that may involve any organ or tissue over time; usually manifests first on the skin
hepatitis B virus (HBV) virus that causes inflammation of the liver; transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen, and blood
herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) virus that causes ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at times of stress
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), permitting various opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases; contracted through exposure to contaminated blood or body fluid (e.g., semen or vaginal secretions)
human papillomavirus (HPV) virus transmitted by direct sexual contact; infection can manifest of the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals
condyloma acuminatum (pl. condylomata acuminata) lesion that appears as a result of human papilloma virus; on the skin, lesions appear as cauliflower-like warts, and on mucous membranes, they have a flat appearance; also known as venereal or genital warts
adenocarcinoma of the breast malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue
amastia absence of a breast
fibrocystic breasts benign condition of the breast consisting of fibrous and cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patient feels painful lumps that fluctuate with menstrual periods
gynecomastia development of mammary glands in the male caused by altered hormone levels
hypermastia abnormally large breasts; also called macromastia
abnormally large breasts; also called hypermastia
hypomastia unusually small breasts; also called micromastia
micromastia unusually small breasts; also called hypomastia
mastitis inflammation of the breast; most commonly occurs in women who are breastfeeding
polymastia presence of more than two breasts
polythelia presence of more than one nipple on a breast, also called supernumerary nipple
supernumerary nipples presence of more than one nipple on a breast; also called polythelia
biopsy (Bx) removal of tissue for microscopic pathologic examination
aspiration biopsy needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination; also called needle biopsy
needle biopsy needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination; also called aspiration biopsy
endoscopic biopsy removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure (e.g. colposcopy)
excisional biopsy removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination
incisional biopsy removal of a suspicious tissue for microscopic examination (e.g., cervical or endometrial biopsy)
stereotactic breast biopsy use of x-ray imaging, a specialized stereotactic frame, and a computer to calculate, precisely locate, and direct a needle into a breast lesion to remove a core specimen for biopsy
sentinel node breast biopsy biopsy of the sentinel node (the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor) in a breast with early cancer to determine metastases and, if no malignancy is found, to avoid the extensive removal of axillary nodes, which causes lymphedema
colposcopy examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, a specialized microscope which often has a camera attachment for photographs; used to document finding s and for follow-up treatments
hysteroscopy use of a hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assessment of abnormalities
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use of nonionizing images to detect gynecologic conditions (pelvis or soft breast tissue anomalies) cancer, tumors arising from endometrium of the cervix
Papanicolaou "Pap" Smear study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities
hysterosalpingogram x-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes using a contrast medium to determine the patency (openness)
radiography x-ray imaging
mammogram x-ray (low-dose) of the breast tissue to detect neoplasm
pelvic sonography ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
endovaginal sonogram Ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made w/ ultrasonic transducer within the vagina to detect conditions such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion; also Transvaginal Sonogram
transvaginal sonogram ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries made with the ultrasonic transducer within the vagina to detect conditions such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion ; also endovaginal sonogram
sonohysterogram transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determine tubal patency ; also hysterosonogram and saline infusion sonogram
hysterosonogram transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determine tubal patency; also sonohysterogram and saline infusion sonogram
saline infusion sonogram transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uteamrine pathology or to determine tubal patency ; also sonohysterogram and hysterosonogram
transabdominal sonogram ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder, uterus, tubes, and ovaries, to detect conditions such as cysts and tumors
adhesiolysis breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions ; also adhesiotomy
adhesiotomy breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions ; also adhesiolysis
Created by: alexandramila
 

 



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