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CSA Chapter 10

Respiratory System

alveol/o alveolus, air sac
bronch/o bronchus, airway
bronchi/o bronchus, airway
bronchiol/o bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o carbon dioxide
carb/o carbon dioxide
layng/o larynx (voice box)
lob/o lobe (a portion)
nas/o nose
or/o mouth
ox/o Oxygen
palat/o palate
pector/o chest
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
phren/o diaphragm; mind
pleur/o pleura (lining of lungs)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o lung, air
pneumon/o lung, air
pulmon/o lung
rhin/o nose
sinus/o sinus, cavity
spir/o breathing
steth/o chest
thorac/o chest
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea, windpipe
uvul/o uvula
nose structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
paranasal sinuses air-filled space in the skull that opens into the nasal cavities
palate roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
hard palate bony anterior (front) portion of the palate
soft palate muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
Pharynx throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx lower part of the pharynx, just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
adenoid lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
Larynx voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
Epiglottis a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
carina Cartilaginous ridge at the point where the trachea divides into two (right & left) bronchi
Trachea windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi in the lungs
bronchial tree branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
right bronchus and left bronchus two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
Bronchioles progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
Alveoli thin-walled, microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
Lobes subdivisions of the lung, with two on the left and three on the right
pleura membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
Diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
Mediastinum partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and that encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membrane thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
Cilia Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
parenchyma functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that perform respiration
eupnea normal breathing
Bradynea slow breathing
Tachypnea fast breathing
hypopnea shallow breathing
hyperpnea deep breathing
dyspnea difficulty breathing
apnea inability to breathe
orthopnea ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli; occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis; also called rales
rales popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli; occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis; also called crackles
wheezes high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
rhonchi sound w/ a musical pitch during inhale/exhale heard on the chest caused by air passing through narrowed bronchi/due to mucus buildup; if low-pitched it is sonorous rhonchus; if high-pitched w/ a whistle/squeaky quality it is sibilant rhonchus
stridor high-pitched, crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
caseous necrosis degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
cyanosis bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
dysphonia hoarseness (phon/o = voice or sound)
epistaxis nosebleed (epi = upon; stazo = to drip)
expectoration coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs (ptysis = to spit)
hypercapnia excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood (capno = smoke; carbo = coal); also called hypercarbia
hypercarbia excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood (capno = smoke; carbo = coal); also called hypercapnia
hyperventilation excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
hypocapnia deficient level of carbon dioxide in the blood; also called hypocarbia
hypocarbia deficient level of carbon dioxide in the blood; also called hypocapnia
hypoventilation deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
pulmonary edema fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli and, eventually, flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate density on an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)
asthma panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
bronchospasm constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and decreased gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick/sticky mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs/ digestive tract
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) acute respiratory infection involving the larynx, trachea, and bronchi causing inflammation; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough; referred to as croup in infants and young children
croup acute respiratory infection in infants and young children involving the larynx, trachea, and bronchi causing inflammation; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct ''seal bark'' cough
laryngospasm spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
nasal polyposis presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
empyema accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity; also called pyothorax
Created by: alexandramila
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