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Cardiovascular Notes

The heart rests on: diaphragm
The heart is located in the: medistinum
apex is directed: anterior inferiorly to the left
the base or superior border is directed: posterior superiorly to the right
Anterior surface is: deep to the sternum and ribs
inferior surface is: portion that rests on the diaphragm
The right border faces the right lung
the left border or pulmonary border faces the left lung
superior right point superior border of the third right costal cartilage about 3cm to the right of the midline
superior left point inferior border of second left costal cartilage about 3cm to the left of the midline
inferior left point apex of the heart in the fifth left intercostal space about 9cm to the left of the midline
inferior right point superior border of the sixth right costal cartilage about 3cm to the right of the midline
pericardium is the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart
fibrous pericardium is tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue
fibrous pericardium prevents overstretching of the heart, provides protection and anchors the heart in the mediastinum.
serous pericardium a thinner more delicate membrane that forms a double layer around the heart
parietal layer of serous pericardium is fused to fibrous pericardium
visceral layer of serous pericardium (epicardium) adheres to the surface of the heart
pericardial fluid is a slippery secretion that reduces friction between the membrane as the heart moves
pericardial cavity contains pericardial fluid
epicardium is also called serous pericardium
Epicardium is the external layer of the heart wall
epicardium is composed of two layers which are visceral layer of serous pericariumvariable layer of connective or adipose tissue
Myocardium is the middle layer composed of cardic muscle tissue
Myocardium is responsible for pumping action of the heart
Cardiac muscle fibres swirl diagonally around the heart and interlacing bundles
Endocardium is thin layer of endothelium overlying connective tissue
endocardium provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves of the heart
Endocardium is continuous with the endothelial lining of the large blood vessels attached to the heart.
compared to skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle fibres are shorter, less circular, transverse
two sepearte functional networks are the atria and ventricles
intercallated disks connect ends of cardiac muscle fibres to neighbouring fibres.
desmosomes hold fibres together
gap junctions allow muscle action potentials to conduct from one muscle fibre to its neighbour
each network contracts as a unit
listening to heart sounds is called auscultation
Sound comes primarily from blood tubulence caused by the cloising of heart valves
only the first and second sounds are loud enough to be heard through a stethoscope
the first sound S1 is louder an a bit longger than the second sound
lubb is created by blood turbulence associated with the closure of av valves
the seond sound s2 is caused by blood turbulence associated with the closing of the semilunar valves "dupp"
the sounds are best heard through a stethoscope
the closure of aortic valve is best heard superior right point
the colosure of the pulmonary valve superior left point
the colsure of the bicuspid valve is best heard inferior left point
the closure of the tricuspid valve is best heard inferior right point
valvular abnormalities include murmurs
Created by: xArachnax