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Empiricism Knowledge attained through sense experiences (Bacon)
Cognito, ergo sum I think, therefore I am (Descartes)
Social Contract Governments are given their right to rule through the will of the people (Rousseau)
Liberalism People have the right to depose governments that do not protect their natural rights (Locke)
Locke's Natural Rights Life, liberty, and property
Democracy Advocating the rights of the individual to make decisions as part of a collective act
Capitalism Right to hold property and gain profits
Republicanism Select a government through elections of representatives, citizens must put civic duty ahead of individual interest
Englightenment Intellectual movement insisting on freedom of action separate from divine will
Individual Rights People seek freedom and a high living standard without arbitrary government restrictions
"Wealth of Nations" Adam Smith. Individuals pursing their own interests promote society's interests. The free market leads to healthy competition.
Government Responsibility Protect and promote people's rights/ and freedoms
English Common Law Precedents are used to decide similar cases, inspired Constitution
US Citizenship By birth or naturalization (marriage, work, parent of a citizen)
Citizen Rights Express oneself, trial by jury, vote, apply for federal jobs, run for office
Citizen Responsibilities Support/defend Constitution, vote, obey laws, respect others, pursue life/liberty/happiness, taxes, jury duty, drafts
Iroquois Constitution "Great Law of Peace." Bicameral legislature. Individual tribes and a tribal federation with laws.
"Common Sense" Thomas Paine. Encourage citizens towards independence from England. Role of the government vs. rights of society
Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson. 1: the unalienable right of people to seek independence.2: charges against George III. 3: declare independence
Constitution 3 branches of government. State vs federal power. Provision for amendments.
Article 1 Legislative branch
Article 2 Executive branch
Article 3 Judicial branch (Supreme and Federal courts)
Article 4 States' relationship to federal government and other states
Article 5 Requirements for amendments (3/4 approval)
Article 6 Constitution is the land's supreme law. No religious test for candidates
Article 7 9 states needed for the Constitution to be the official law
"Spirit of the Laws" Montesquieu. 3 branches of government
Federalist Papers Hamilton, Madison, Jay. Argued the Constitution should be ratified without a Bill of Rights.
Bill of Rights James Madison. Amendments 1-10
13th Amendment End slavery
14th Amendment Equal protection under the law
15th Amendment Male suffrage
18th Amendment Prohibition
21st Amendment Reverse prohibition
17th Amendment Popular election of senators for 6 year terms
19th Amendment Women suffrage
24th Amendment Eliminate poll tax
26th Amendment Voting age 18
11th Amendment Sovereign immunity of states
27th Amendment Congress cannot raise or lower salaries mid-term
Virginia Plan Bicameral legislature both be elected based on population
The Great Compromise 2 senators per state, proportional representation in the House
3/5 Compromise Slave population counted as 3/5 of its actual size to determine representation in the House
Legislative Branch Levy taxes, declare war, confirm judges and the president, impeach president, federal courts
Executive Branch Enforce laws, veto laws, executive orders, Commander in Chief, appoint judges, dissolve congress
Judicial Branch Interpret Constitution, solve state disputes, life long, 9 justices (1 is chief)
Appellate Court A court of appeals, rules on cases that were tried in lower courts
Marbury vs. Madison Established Judicial Review: the Supreme Court decides lawfulness, not citizens or legislature
Martin vs. Hunter's Lesee State courts are less than the Supreme Court
McCulloch vs. Maryland States can't prevent the federal government from exercising its constitutional power, 1819
US vs. Nixon The president does not have immunity, he is answerable to the law, 1974
Plessy vs. Ferguson Upheld states' right to segregation under "separate but equal," 1896
Brown vs. Board of Education "Separate but equal" violates the 14th amendment, 1954
Adarand Constructors vs. Pena Federal government is bound to the same race-neutrality standards as the states, 1995
Miranda vs. Arizona Individuals need to know they can plead the 5th and get a lawyer, 1966
Roe vs. Wade States regulate abortion laws
Regents of UC vs. Bakke Race can be a factor but not the deciding factor in school admissions, 1978
US vs. Virginia Military Institute Male-only policy violates the 14th amendment
INS vs. St. Cyr No retroactive convictions for illegal immigrants seeking aid, 1996
Democratic Party Formed in the 1830s. Evolved from rural and southern concerned with states' rights to northeast/west in favor of a strong federal government
Republican Party Formed in 1854. Evolved from northeast/west concerned with a strong federal government to midwest/south favoring states' rights
Federal Election Campaign Act Candidates have to reveal the source of their financing
Electoral College 2 senators + the state's House representatives. 270 are needed to be elected. Each state can set its own rules, but most give all electoral votes to the popular vote winner.
Redistircting Changing the boundaries of political districts based on changing population patterns after a census.
Political Action Committee An organization that raises money to influence an election or legislation.
Republican Political System Separate election of the executive, multi-layer elections (electoral college), and often bicameral
Parliamentary No separate election of the executive, single election system of representatives, and can be unicameral or bicameral
Engle vs. Vitale No daily prayers in school, 1962
Lee vs. Weisman No religious activities at graduations, 1992
Santa Fe vs. Doe No prayers during extracurriculars, 2000
Pluralality Receive enough votes to win the practical majority but not the absolute majority. "First past the post."
Federalists Favored a strong and rich nation with a powerful federal government
Democratic-Republicans Agrarian values, personal freedom, states' rights
Hard Money Contributions Cash given to the campaign of a political candidate
Chief Justice Selected by the President and confirmed by the Senate
Commerce Clause Congress regulates interstate, foreign, and commerce with Native Americans
Shadow Cabinet Parallel executive branch in parliament that is made up of the opposition to challenge and offer alternatives, but has no real power
Confirmation of the President Senate
"Under God" Added by Congress in 1954
Concurrent Majority Tried to solve the problem of Tyranny of the Majority by enabling minorities to block majority actions.
16th Amendment 1913. Government can tax income and corporations
Created by: johea
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