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CSA Chapter 8

Blood and Lymphatic System

blast/o germ or bud
chrom/o color
chromat/o color
chyl/o juice
cyt/o cell
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
immun/o immune, resistant
lymph/o clear fluid
morph/o form
myel/o bone marrow or spinal cord
phag/o eat or swallow
plas/o formation
reticul/o a net
splen/o spleen
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus
plasma liquid portion of the blood and lymph; contains water, proteins, and cellular components (i.e., white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets)
blood circulating tissue of the body consisting of fluid with formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) suspended in the fluid
serum liquid portion of the blood that remains after clotting
red blood cells (RBCs) transport oxygen and carbon dioxide; also called erythrocyte
erythrocyte transport oxygen and carbon dioxide; also called red blood cell
hemoglobin the protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
white blood cell protects the body from harmful invading substances; also called leukocyte
leukocyte protects the body from harmful invading substances; also called white blood cell
neutrophil a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis) (neutr= neither) (phil=attraction for); Normal Range (in stained blood smear): 54-75%
polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments in its nucleus (poly= many; morpho=form; nucleus= kernel)
basophil a granular leukocyte, named for the dark stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues (baso=base; phil= attraction for); Normal Range (in stained blood smear): 0-1%
eosinophil a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reactions (eos=dawn-colored [rosy]; phil= attraction for); Normal Range (in stained blood smear): 1-3%
agranulocytes a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
monocytes an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection (mono=one); Normal Range (in stained blood smear): 3-7%
lymphocytes an agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity; the three categories of lymphocytes are T cells (thymus-dependent), B cells (bone marrow-derived), and natural killer (NK) cells; Normal Range (in stained blood smear): 25-33%
platelets cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting (coagulation); also called thrombocytes
lymphatic system Consists of lymph vessels, nodes, and tissues through which lymph drains into the blood
thymus primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps to maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
spleen organ between the stomach and the diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by phagocytosis, and provides an environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune responses
lymph fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
lymph capillaries microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
lymph cessels vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes; also called lymphatic vessels
lacteals specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream (lacteus=milky)
chyle white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
lymph nodes many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
lymph ducts collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
right lymphatic duct receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
thoracic duct receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities
immunity process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
antigen a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
antibody a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
active immunity a long-lasting immunity that results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies; developed either naturally, in response to an infection, or artificially, in response to the administration of a vaccine
passive immunity a short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are conveyed either naturally, through the placenta to a fetus, or artificially, by injection of a serum containing antibodies
microcytosis presence of small red blood cells
hypochromic pale in color; lighter in color than normal
macrocytosis presence of large red blood cells
anisocystosis presence of red blood cells of unequal size (an = not, without; iso = equal)
poikilocytosis presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells (poikilo= irregular)
reticulocytosis an increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
erythropenia an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
lymphocytopenia an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
neutropenia a decreased number of neutrophils
pancytopenia an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
thrombocytopenia an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
hemolysis breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
immunocompromised impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
immunosuppression impaired ability to provide an immune response
lymphadenopathy enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
anemia a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to tissues
aplastic anemia a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
iron deficiency anemia a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
autoimmune disease any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function; rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples of autoimmune diseases
erythroblastosis fetalis a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
Rh factor the antigen on the surface of red blood cells on the Rh blood group system; its presence can cause a reaction between Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood; Rh is derived from Rhesus monkey, in which the antigen was first obeserved
Rh positive (Rh+) presence of antigens
Rh negative (Rh-) absence of antigens
Hemochromatosis hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
hemophilia a group of hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
leukemia chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
myelodysplasia disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells); usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
lymphoma any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
metastasis process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ; the plural form, metastases, indicates spreading to two or more distant sites
mononucleosis condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
polycythemia increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
septicemia a systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in the circulating blood
phlebotomy incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing; also called venotomy
venotomy incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing; also called phlebotomy
blood chemistry test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents (e.g., glucose and cholesterol)
blood chemistry panels specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions (e.g., metabolic panel, lipid panel, and arthritis panel)
Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) battery of tests used as a general screen for disease; includes tests for calcium, carbon dioxide (CO2), chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) tests performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening: albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
blood culture test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed, and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
CD4 cell count a measure of the number of cluster of differentiation (CD4) cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult range 600-1,500 cells in a given volume of blood
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) a timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
thromboplastin substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
Prothrombin Time (PT) test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
prothrombin protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
complete blood count (CBC) common lab blood test performed as a screen of general health/for diagnostic purposes; typically includes the component tests that follow
white blood count (WBC) a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
granulocytes A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
red blood count (RBC) a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
hemoglobin test (HGB or Hgb) a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
hematocrit (HCT or Hct) a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
blood indices calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
mean corpuscular volume (MCV) calculation of the volume of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results. MCV = HCT/RBC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) calculation of the content (weight) of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH = HGB/RBC
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC=HGB/HCT
differential count determination of the number of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted
platelet count (PLT) calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood; the normal adult range is 150,000-450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
bone marrow aspiration needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
bone marrow biopsy pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
lymphangiogram an x-ray image of a lymph node or lymph vessel obtained after injection of a contrast dye
computed tomography (CT) full body x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
positron emission tomography (PET) scanning technique combining nuclear medicine and CT tech to produce images of anatomy/metabolic function within the body; useful in determining the recurrence of cancers/to measure response to therapy; commonly used in evaluating lymphoma
bone marrow transplant transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
lymphadenectomy removal of a lymph node
lymphadenotomy incision into a lymph node
lymph node dissection removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
splenectomy removal of the spleen
thymectomy removal of the thymus
blood transfusion introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use (auto = self)
homologous blood blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient (homo = same)
blood component therapy transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
cross-matching method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
chemotherapy treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
immunotherapy use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms, as seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, or allergy
plasmapheresis removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by reinfusion (apheresis = a withdrawal)
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
hemostatic a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
vasoconstrictor a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
vasodilator drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ALT alanine aminotransferase (enzyme)
AST aspartate aminotransferase (enzyme)
BMP basic metabolic panel
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CBC complete blood count
CD cluster of differentiation
CMP comprehensive metabolic panel
CO2 carbon dioxide
CT computed tomography
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
HCT or Hct hematocrit
HGB or Hgb hemoglobin
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
MCV mean corpuscular volume
NK natural killer (cell)
PET positron-emission tomography
PLT platelet count
PMN polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)
PT prothrombin time
PTT partial thromboplastin time
RBC red blood cell; red blood count
Rh+ Rh positive
Rh- Rh negative
RRR relative risk reduction; regular rate and rhythm
RTO return to office
WBC white blood cell, white blood count
Created by: alexandramila
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