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ch 12 cont.

saliva the clear viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth
rugae a ridge or fold that presents large folds in the mucous membrane of that organ
rectum the portion of the large intestine about 12 cm long,continuous with descending sigmond colon
rebound tenderness a sensation of severe pain experienced by the patient when the doctor applies deep pressure is applied to the lower right quad. of the abdomen at mcburney;s point and this type of pain is experienced is is strong indicator of appendicitis
pyloric sphincter a thickened muscular ring in the stomach that regulates the passage of food from the pylorus of the stomach into the duodenum
pulp any soft spongy tissue-such as that contained within the spleen,the pulp chamber of the tooth or the distal phalanges of the fingers and the toes
premolar tooth one of the two teeth between the molars & canines of the upper & lower jaw,the bicuspid teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections(cups)for crushing & grinding food;premolar tooth
borborygmus is an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. rumbling,gurgling and tinkling heard when listening with a sethscope
ascites an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity,the fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
aphagia condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
anorexia lack or loss of appetite,resulting in the inability to eat
achlorhydria is an abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
nausea an unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit
melena an abnormal,black,tarry stool containing digested blood
jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin,mucous membranes and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
icterus a yellow discoloration of the skin,mucous membranes and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
gastroesophageal reflux is a backflow of content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
flatus; flatulence is air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
eructation is the act of bringing up air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth,belching
emesis the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
emaciation excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition is emaciation
dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
dyspepsia a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating. involves an uncomfortable feeling of fullness ,heartburn,bloating and nauesa
diarrhea the frequent passage of loose,watery stools
constipation difficulty in passing stools,or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
apthous stomatitis small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips,tongue and inside the cheeks of the mouth;also called canker sores
anal fistula an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum
achalasia decreased mobility of the lower 2-3s of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esphageal sphincter
vomitus the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
vomit to expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth
steatorrhea greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces,characterized by frothy foul smelling fecal matter that floats,some malabsorption syndromes and may condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestine
pruritus ani a common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix
celiac disease nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
cirrhosis a disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative,causing injury to the hepatocytes
crohn's disease digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever,cramping,diarrhea,weight loss and anorexia
constipation a state in which the individuals pattern of bowel elimination is characterized by a decrease in the frequency of bowel movements and the passage of hard,dry stools. the individual experiences difficult defecation.
colorectal cancer the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
esophageal varices swollen,twisted veins located in the distal end of the esophagus
dysentery a term used to describe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by water or food containing bacteria,protozoa,parasites or chemical irritants
diverticular disease an expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitiis
dental caries tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms
hernia an irregular protrusion of tissue,organ,or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
hepatitis acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection,drugs,alcohol,toxins or parasites
hemorrhoids an unnaturally distended or swollen vein in the distal rectum or anus
gallstones (cholelithiasis) pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization
herpetic stomatitis inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primarily or a secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex
hirschsprung's disease (congenitak megacolon) absence birth of the autonomic ganglia in a segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that normally stimulates peristalsis
ileus a term used to describe an obstructive of the intestine
intussusception telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine usually in the ileocecal region-causing an obstruction
intestinal obstruction complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the content in the small or large intestine
pancreatitis an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
oral leukoplakia a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) spastic colon increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall,resulting abdominal pain,flatulence,nausea,anorexia and the tapping of gas throughout the intestines
thrush a fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore,creamy white,slightly raised crudlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces, is caused Candida Albicans
polps, colorectal small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum
periodontal disease a term used to describe a group of inflammatory gum disorders,which may lead to degeneration of teeth,gums and sometimes surrounding bones
peptic ulcers (gastric,duodenal,perforated) a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
ulcerative colitis a chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers
volvulus a rotation of loops of bowel,causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction
abdominal ultrasound the use of very high frequency sound waves to provide visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen
abdominocentesis (paracentesis) involves insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid,with the person in a sitting position
barium enema (be) (lower GI series) infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium,barium sulfate,into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
appendectomy surgical removal of an inflamed appendix
amlase an enzyme secreted normally from the pancreatic, cells that travels to the duodenum by way of the pancreatic duct and aids in dgestion
alkaline phosphatase (alp) enzyme is found in the highest concentrations in the liver,biliary tract and bone
alanine aminotransferase (alt) is a hepatocellular enzyme released in elevated amounts due to liver dysfunction;also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transminase (sgpt)
colonscopy the direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonscope
cholecytography(oral) visualization of the gallbladder through x-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
cholecystectomy the surgical removal of the gallbladder
cheilplasty surgically correcting a defect of the lip is known as cheilopsty
barium swallow (upper GI series) involves oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium,barium sulfate,which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
esophagogastroduodenscopy (egd) is the process of direct visualization of the esophagus,stomach and duodenum using a lighted fiberoptic endscope
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp) a procedure that examines the size of and the filing of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endscope
ct of the abdomen a painless,noninvasive x-ray procedure that produces an image created by the computer representing a detailed cross section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
colonstomy the surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled by bringing the incised colon out to the abdominal surface
liver scan a noninvasive scanning technique,which enables the visualization of the shape,size and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound
liver biopsy a piece of liver tissue is obtained for examination by inserting a specially designed needle into the liver through the abdominal wall
herniorrhaphy is the surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures,mesh or wire
gastric lavage the irrigation or washing out,of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution
gastric analysis study of the study content to determine the acid content and to detect the presence of blood,bacteria,bile and abnormal cells
fluorscopy is a radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluroscope
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (eswl) an alternative treatment for gallstones by using ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter & source of shock waves with the stones, to crush the gallstones and thus enable the contraction of the gallbladder to remove stone fragments
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (ptc) an examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium;also abbrv. as PHTC
nasogastric intubation involves tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions,gas or food
magnetic resonance imaging (mri) a noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid,soft tissue and bony structures without the use of radiation
serum bilirubin a measurement if the bilirubin level in the serum,; levels are a result of the breakdown of red blood cells
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase an enzyme that has very high concentrations in liver cells;also known as aspartate aminotransferase (ast)
small bowel follow-through oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium,barium sulfate,which flows through the GI system
stool analysis for occult blood the analysis of a stool sample to determine the presence of blood not visible to the naked eye
stool culture involves collection of a stool specimen placed on one or more culture mediums and allowed to grow colonies of microorganisms to identify specific pathogen
stool guaiac is a test on a stool using guaiac as a reagent,which identifies the presence of blood in the stool
urinary bilirubin tests for conjugated or direct bilirubin in a urine specimen
Created by: Courtne