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Ch 12 med term

ch 12 med term

QuestionAnswer
absorption the passage of substances across and into tissues,such as the passage of digested food molecules into intestinal cells or the passage of liquids into kidney tubles
cholelithiasis abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
cecum a cul-de-sac containing the first past of the large intestine. it joint the ileum,the last segment of the small intestine
cardiac sphincter the muscular ring(sphincter)in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach;also known as the lower esophageal sphincter
canine tooth any one of the four teeth,two in each jaw,situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches;also known as cuoid tooth
bowel the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus
bilrubin the orange-yellow pigment of bile,formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
bile a bitter,yellow-green secretion of the liver
bicuspid tooth one of the two teeth between the molars & canines of the upper & lower jaw,the bicuspid teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections(cups)for crushing & grinding food;premolar tooth
sacitic fluid a watery fluid containing albumin,glucose,& electrolytes that accumulates in the peritoneal cavity in association with certain disease conditions such as liver disease
anus the opening through which the solid wastes(feces)are eliminated from the body
amylase an enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules
alimentary canal a musculomembranous tube,about 30 ft long,extending from the mouth to the anus & lined with mucous membrane. also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract
enzyme a protein produced by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter
endocrine gland a gland that secretes its enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts
enamel a hard,white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth. is the hardest substance in the body
emulsify the disperse a liquid into another liquid,making a colloidal suspension
duodenum the 1 portion of the small intestine. is the shortest,widest & most fixed portion of the small intestine-taking an almost circular course from the pyloric valve of the stomach so that its termination is close to its starting point
digestive tract a musculomembranous tube,about 30 ft long,extending from the mouth to the anus & lined with mucous membrane. also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract
digestion the process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells, this occurs in the digestive tract
dieitian an allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for sick as well as healthy people.this may involve planning meals for a hospital or large organization or individual diet counseling with patients
dentin the chief material of teeth surrounding the pulp and situated inside of the enamel and cementum
deglutition swallowing
defecation the act of expelling forces from the rectum through the anus
deciduous teeth the first set or primarily teeth;baby teeth
cuspid tooth any one of the four teeth,two in each jaw,situated immediately lateral to the incisor teeth in the human dental arches;also known as cupid tooth
crown the part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line
comomon bile duct the duct formed by the joining of the cystic duct and hepatic duct
colon the portion of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum
chyme the liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum
lower GI tract the lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the small and large intestines
glycogensis the conversion of simple sugar into a complex form of sugar for storage in the liver
glycogen a complex sugar that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells. it is formed from glucose and stored chiefly in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle cells
glucose a simple sugar found in certain foods,especially fruits and major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids
glucagon a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low
gingivae gum tissue
gavage a procedure in which liquid or semi liquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
gastrointestinal tract a musculomembranous tube,about 30 ft long,extending from the mouth to the anus & lined with mucous membrane. also called the digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract
gastroenterologist a medical doctor who specializes in the study of the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract
gallbladder a pear shaped excretory sac lodged in a fossa on the visceral surface of the lobe of the liver
feces waste or excrement from the digestive tract that is formed in the intestine and expelled through the rectum
fatty acids any of several organic acids produced by the hydrolysis of neutral fats
exocrine gland a gland that secretes its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
esophagus a muscular canal about 24 cm long extending from the pharynx to the stomach
lower GI tract the lower portion of the gastrointestinal tract containing of the small and large intestines
lower esophageal sphincter the muscular ring(sphincter)in the stomach that controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach;also known as the lower esophageal sphincter
liver the largest gland of the body and one of its most complex organs
lipase an enzyme that aids in the digestion of fats
lavage the process of irrigating (washing out)an organ-usually the bladder,bowel,paranasl sinuses, or stomach-for therapeutic purposes
jejunum the intermediate or middle of the 3 portion of the small intestine,connecting proximally with the deodenum and distally with the ileum
insulin a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood
incisor one of the 8 front teeth,4 in each dental arch,that first appear as primarily teeth during infancy are replaced by permanent incisors during childhood and last until old age
ileum the distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum
hydrochloric acid a compound consisting of hydrogen and chlorine
hepatocyte liver cell
glycogenolysis the breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver,releasing it back into the circulating blood in response to a very low blood sugar level
pharynx the throat;a tubular structure about 12 cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and is situated just in front of the cervical vertebrae
permanent teeth the full set of teeth -32 teeth--that replace the deciduous or temporary teeth
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
peritoneum a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
peristalsis the coordinated,rhythmic,serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract,bile through the bile duct and urine through the uterus
parotid gland one of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear
papillae a small,nipple shaped projection that extend from collagen fibers,the capillary blood vessels,and sometimes the nerves of the dermis
pancreas an elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches long,located in the upper left quad.of the abdomen that secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes,insulin and glucagon
palate a structure that forms the roof of the mouth
oropharynx the section of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity
nutitionsit an allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition
molar tooth any of 12 molar teeth,6 in each dental arch,located posterior to the premolar teeth.the molar teeth have a flat surface with multiple projections for crushing and grinding food
mcburneys point a point on the right side of the abdomen,about 2-3s of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
masticiation chewing,tearing or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
villi one of the many tiny projections barely visible to the naked eye clustered over the entire mucous surface of the small intestine
uvula the small,cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
upper GI tract the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract consisting of the mouth,pharynx,esophagus and stomach
triglycerides a compound consisting of a fatty acid and glycerol
stomach the major organ of digestion located in the upper left quad.of the abdomen and divided into a body and pylorus
sphincter a circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body
sigmond colon the portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the junction of the rectum
secondary teeth the full set of teeth -32 teeth--that replace the deciduous or temporary teeth
salivary glands one of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth thus aiding the digestive process
Created by: Courtne