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Chapter 8&9 Anatomy

Anatomy terms

TermDefinition
Epithelial tissue Covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the body or particular organs (secretion, excretion, and absorption), and forms many glands.
Connective tissue Functions to support the body and its parts, connect and hold them together, transport substances through the body, and protect it from foreign invaders.
Muscle tissue Moves the body and its parts. Muscle cells are adapted for contractility and pro-duce movement by shortening or lengthening the contractile units found in cytoplasm. Muscle tissue also produces most of the heat of the body.
Nervous tissue It specializes in communication among the various parts of the body and in integration of their activities. This tissue’s major function is the generation of complex messages that coordinate the body functions.
Collagen Strong, flexible structural protein fiber that forms ropelike bundles
Epithelial membranes Composed of epithelial tissue glued by a basement membrane to an underlying layer of supportive connective tissue
Connective tissue membranes Composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane
Cutaneous membrane Covers body surfaces that are exposed to the external environment.
Serous membrane Lines cavities that are not open to the external environment and covers many of the organs inside these cavities.
Mucous membranes Epithelial membranes that line body sur-faces opening directly to the exterior.
Goblet cells Form a protective, sometimes lubricating blanket of gel
Synovial membranes Line the spaces between bones and joints that move are classified as connective tissue membranes.
Squamous cells Are flat and platelike.
Cuboidal cells Are cube-shaped and have more cytoplasm
Columnar epithelial cells Have more height than width and thus appear narrow and cylindrical
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Has only one layer of oddly shaped columnar cells.
Simple squamous epithelium Consists of only one layer of flat, scalelike cells
Simple cuboidal epithelium Composed of one layer of cuboidal cells resting on a basement membrane
Simple columnar epithelium Composes the surface of the mucous membrane that lines the stomach, intestine, uterus, uterine tubes, and parts of the respiratory tract. It consists of a single layer of cells, many of which have a modified structure
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Found lining the air passages of the respiratory system and certain segments of the male reproductive system, such as the urethra Although appearing to be stratified, only a single layer of irregularly shaped columnar cells touches the basement membrane.
Stratified squamous epithelium Characterized by multiple layers of cells with typically flattened squamous cells at the free, or outer, surface of the epithelial sheet
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Presence of tough keratin fibers in the squamous cells contributes to the protective qualities of skin covering the body surface.
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium Found lining the vagina, mouth, and esophagus. Its free surface is moist, and the outer epithelial cells, unlike those found in the skin, do not contain keratin.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium Serves a protective function. Typically, two or more rows of low cuboidal cells are arranged randomly over a basement membrane. Can be located in the sweat gland ducts, in the pharynx, and over parts of the epiglottis.
Stratified columnar epithelium Multiple layers of columnar cells, with only the most superficial cells being obviously columnar in appearance. It is located in segments of the male urethra and in the mucous layer near the anus.
Transitional epithelium Stratified tissue typically found in body areas that are subjected to stress and tension changes
Loose fibrous connective tissue Is sometimes called areolar tissue. It is loose because it is stretchable, and ordinary because it is one of the most widely distributed of all tissues.
Reticular tissue Slender, branching reticulin fibers with reticular cells overlying them compose the reticular meshwork.
Dense fibrous tissue Consists mainly of fibers packed densely in the matrix.
Created by: Gdstoddart
 

 



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