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Chapter 2 Anatomy

Anatomy terms

Homeostasis The relatively constant states maintained by the body.
Set point or setpoint range Normal reading or range of normal is called
Integumentary Separates internal environment from external environment, providing stability of internal fluid volume
Skeletal Supports and protects internal environment, allowing movement; stores minerals that can be moved into and out of internal fluid
Muscular Powers and directs movements; provides heat
Nervous Regulates homeostatic mechanisms, sensing changes, integrating information, sending signals to effectors
Endocrine Regulates homeostasis by secreting signaling hormones that travel through internal environment to effector cells
Cardiovascular Maintains internal constancy by transporting nutrients, water, oxygen, hormones, wastes, and other materials and heat within the internal environment
Lymphatic Maintains constant fluid pressure by draining excess fluid from tissues, cleaning it, and recycling it to bloodstream
Immune Defends internal environment against harmful agents
Respiratory Maintains stable O2 and CO2 levels in body by exchanging these gases between external and internal environments; provides vocal communication with others for protection, hunting, etc.
Digestive Maintains relatively constant nutrient level in body by digesting food and absorbing nutrients into internal environment
Urinary Maintains constantly low level of waste and regulates pH of internal environment; helps maintain constancy of internal water volume and balance of ions and other substances
Reproductive Passes genetic code containing information for forming a body and maintaining homeostasis to offspring
Afferent A signal traveling toward a particular center or point of reference
Efferent Signal moving away from a center or other point of reference.
Negative feedback Oppose or “negate” a change by creating a response that is opposite in direction to the initial disturbance
Positive feedback Tends to amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring.
Feed-forward The concept that information may flow ahead to an-other process to trigger a change in anticipation of an event that will follow.
Intracellular control Operate at the cell level. Regulate functions within the cell, often by means of genes and enzymes.
Intrinsic control Mechanisms operate at the tissue and organ levels
Extrinsic control “Outside” control and operates at the system and organism levels
Created by: Gdstoddart



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